Investigating the Subsidence of the Esfarayen Plain Due to the Exploitation of Groundwater Resources

Document Type : Research Article


1 Associate Professor at Department of Civil Engineering, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran

2 Department of Geomatics Engineering, Faculty of Civil engineering and Transportation, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran

3 MSc. graduate, Civil Engineering, Water and Hydraulic Structures, Young Researchers and Elite Club, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

4 MSc. graduate, Department of Surveying Engineering, Faculty of Surveying Engineering and Spatial Information, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

5 Department of Remote Sensing Engineering, Faculty of Surveying, University of Industrial and Technological Advanced Studies, Kerman, Iran



Land subsidence is a natural hazard that occurs gradually in many regions of Iran. Investigating the causes of subsidence is important in order to prevent its progression, and decisions should be based on the characteristics of each region. While the drop in groundwater level is an important factor affecting subsidence, there is no direct linear relationship between changes in groundwater level and subsidence due to the complexity of other influencing factors. Therefore, this research aims to investigate the relationship between subsidence and changes in groundwater levels in the Esfarayen region of plain during the period of 2015 to 2021. The study analyzed the time series of radar interferometry and the water level of piezometric wells in the area of Esfarayen. The results show that there is a correlation between the decrease in groundwater level and the increase in subsidence in the studied area. However, due to the complexity of the relationship between subsidence and its contributing factors, further investigation and more comprehensive models are necessary.


Main Subjects

[1]. Zarei K, Rasoulzadeh A, Seddighi M, Ahmadzadeh G, Ramezani J. Determination of the relationship between land subsidence and ground water level loss with radar interferometry and GPS station methods (Case study: Salmas Plain). Irrigation and Water Engineering, 2020;11(1):168-82. [Persian].
[2]. Rahmani G, Chitsazan M, Ghafouri H. Predicting water level drawdown and assessment of land subsidence in Damaneh-Daran Aquifer by combining numerical and analytical models. Advanced Applied Geology, 2022; 12(2): 259-275. [Persian].
[3].Tamburini A, Bianchi M, Giannico C, Novali F. Retrieving surface deformation by PSInSAR™ technology: A powerful tool in reservoir monitoring. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control. 2010;4(6):928-37.
[4].Rucci A, Ferretti A, Guarnieri AM, Rocca F. Sentinel 1 SAR interferometry applications: The outlook for sub millimeter measurements. Remote Sensing of Environment. 2012;120:156-63.
[5].Khorrami M, Alizadeh B, Ghasemi Tousi E, Shakerian M, Maghsoudi Y, Rahgozar P. How groundwater level fluctuations and geotechnical properties lead to asymmetric subsidence: A PSInSAR analysis of land deformation over a transit corridor in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Remote Sensing. 2019;11(4):377.
[6].Biswas K, Chakravarty D, Mitra P, Misra A. Spatial Correlation Based Psinsar Technique to Estimate Ground Deformation in las Vegas Region, Us. InIGARSS 2018-2018 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium 2018 (pp. 2251-2254). IEEE.
[7].Chang CP, Yen JY, Hooper A, Chou FM, Chen YA, Hou CS, Hung WC, Lin MS. Monitoring of Surface Deformation in Northern Taiwan Using DInSAR and PSInSAR Techniques. Terrestrial, Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences. 2010;21(3).
[8].Xiong S, Wang C, Qin X, Zhang B, Li Q. Time-series analysis on persistent scatter-interferometric synthetic aperture radar (PS-InSAR) derived displacements of the Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macao bridge (HZMB) from Sentinel-1A observations. Remote Sensing. 2021;13(4):546
[9]. Malik K, Kumar D, Perissin D, Pradhan B. Estimation of ground subsidence of New Delhi, India using PS-InSAR technique and Multi-sensor Radar data. Advances in Space Research. 2022;69(4):1863-82. 
[10].Wang H, Mao J, Zhao S, Ning X, Wu Q. PS-InSAR based surface subsidence analysis in Changchun metropolitan area. InE3S Web of Conferences 2021 (Vol. 290, p. 02006). EDP Sciences.
[11].Liu G, Jia H, Zhang R, Cen M, Zhang T. Subsidence detection by PSInSAR based on high resolution TerraSAR-X images. Progress In Electromagnetics Research. 2010;11.
[12].Jo MJ, Won JS, Kim SW. A time-series observation of ground subsidence at Ulsan area using SAR interferometry. In2011 3rd International Asia-Pacific Conference on Synthetic Aperture Radar (APSAR) 2011 Sep 26 (pp. 1-3). IEEE.
[13].Békési E, Fokker PA, Martins JE, Limberger J, Bonté D, Van Wees JD. Production-induced subsidence at the Los Humeros geothermal field inferred from PS-InSAR. geofluids. 2019;2019.
[14].Kim JS, Kim DJ, Kim SW, Won JS, Moon WM. Monitoring of urban land surface subsidence using PSInSAR. Geosciences Journal. 2007;11(1):59.
[15].Sun H, Zhang Q, Zhao C, Yang C, Sun Q, Chen W. Monitoring land subsidence in the southern part of the lower Liaohe plain, China with a multi-track PS-InSAR technique. Remote sensing of environment. 2017;188:73-84.
 [16].Solari L, Ciampalini A, Raspini F, Bianchini S, Moretti S. PSInSAR analysis in the Pisa urban area (Italy): A case study of subsidence related to stratigraphical factors and urbanization. Remote Sensing. 2016;8(2):120.
 [17].Chen B, Gong H, Chen Y, Li X, Zhou C, Lei K, Zhu L, Duan L, Zhao X. Land subsidence and its relation with groundwater aquifers in Beijing Plain of China. Science of the Total Environment. 2020;735:139111.
 [18].Chen CH, Wang CH, Hsu YJ, Yu SB, Kuo LC. Correlation between groundwater level and altitude variations in land subsidence area of the Choshuichi Alluvial Fan, Taiwan. Engineering Geology. 2010;115(1-2):122-31.
[19].Firdaus HS, Prasetyo Y, Diyanah D. Spatial Correlation Analysis of Land Subsidence and The Water Table Changes in Unconfined Aquifers Using Sentinel 1-SAR Image and Geographic Information Systems (Case Study: Semarang City–Indonesia). InE3S Web of Conferences 2018 (Vol. 73, p. 03022). EDP Sciences.
[20].Ferretti A, Prati C, Rocca F. Permanent scatterers in SAR interferometry. IEEE Transactions on geoscience and remote sensing. 2001;39(1):8-20.
[21].Oštir K, Komac M. PSInSAR and DInSAR methodology comparison and their applicability in the field of surface deformations-A case of NW Slovenia. Geologija. 2007;50(1):77-96.
[22].Hanssen RF. Radar interferometry: data interpretation and error analysis. Springer Science & Business Media; 2001.