مکانیسم آلوده‌شدن آبخوان دشت کاشان با تأکید بر آلودگی نیترات و نیتریت

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری علوم و مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی و علوم زمین دانشگاه کاشان

2 دانشیار دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی و علوم زمین دانشگاه کاشان

3 دانشیار دانشکدۀ علوم و فنون نوین دانشگاه تهران

4 استادیار دانشکدۀ علوم زمین دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود

5 استاد، دانشکدۀ علوم محیطی و زمین، دانشگاه اتاوا، اتاوا، کانادا

چکیده

در تحقیق حاضر، آلودگی آبخوان دشت کاشان از نظر نیترات و نیتریت و مکانیسم آن بررسی شد. به این منظور، 42 نمونه آب از آبخوان تهیه و آنالیز شد. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد کلراید و سولفات، آنیون‏های غالب و سدیم و کلسیم، کاتیون‏های غالب‌اند. نتایج بررسی حد مجاز متغیرهای TDS، pH، Na+، K+، Cl-، SO42-، NO3-، NO2-، Ca2+ و Mg2+، نشان داد به‏ترتیب 61/97، 47/40، 100، 0، 61/97، 23/95، 09/38، 24/95، 34/83 و 23/95 درصد از منابع آب منطقه براساس استانداردهای WHO و ISIRI، وضعیت غیرمجاز دارند. همچنین، نیترات با Na+، K+، Ca2+، Mg2+، Cl-، HCO3-، SO42-، NO2-، TDS و EC به‏ترتیب همبستگی 68/0، 50/0، 63/0، 52/0، 64/0، 34/0-، 32/0، 64/0، 64/0 و 65/0 دارد. سایر نتایج نشان داد نیترات، ‌دامنۀ تغییرات 86/1 تا 1034 و میانگین 76/118 میلی‏گرم بر لیتر دارد. همچنین، 49/40، 42/21 و 09/38 درصد از نمونه‏ها از نظر نیترات به‏ترتیب، کمی‏آلوده، آلوده و بسیار آلوده‌اند. به‏منظور بررسی دقیق‏تر آلودگی آبخوان طبق توصیۀ WHO، نتایج ترکیبی نیترات و نیتریت نشان داد 23/95 درصد از نمونه‏ها، غلظت بیش از حد مجاز دارند. بنابراین، فقط بخش‏های جزئی از آبخوان در جنوب، جنوب غرب و غرب، وضعیت قابل قبولی دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Mechanism of N- Nitrate pollution of Kashan plain aquifer

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Mirzavand 1
  • Hoda Ghasemieh 2
  • Seid Javad Sadatineghad 3
  • Bagheri Nik Ghojogh 4
  • Ian Douglas Clark 5
1 Department of Range and Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources and Earth Sciences, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
2 Department of Range and Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources and Earth Sciences, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
3 Department of Renewable Energies and Environment, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
4 Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
5 Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Ottawa, Canada
چکیده [English]

In this research, the hydrogeochemical situation of Kashan aquifer, its pollution to nitrate and nitrite and their mechanism were studied. For this purpose, 42 water samples from the aquifer were prepared and analyzed. The results showed that chloride and sulfate are predominant anions and sodium and calcium are dominant cations. The results about the permitted range of TDS, pH, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, NO2-, Ca2+ and Mg2+ variables showed that respectively, 97.61%, 40.47%, 100%, 97.61%, 95.23%, 38.09%, 95.24%, 83.34% and 95.23% of region water resources have unauthorized status according to WHO and ISIRI standards. Correlation between NO3- with Na+, K+, Ca2 +, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, NO2-, TDS and EC was 0.68, 0.50, 0.63, 0.52, 0.64, -0.34, 0.32, 0.64, 0.64, respectively. other results showed that nitrate varied between 1.86 to 1034 and had an average of 118.76 mg/lit. Also, 40.49%, 21.42% and 38.9% of the samples for nitrate were slightly polluted, polluted and highly polluted, respectively. For more precise investigation of aquifer contamination, based on WHO recommendation, the combined results of nitrate and nitrite showed that 95.23% of the samples had a non-allowable concentration. Therefore, only small parts of the aquifer in the south, southwest and west have acceptable situation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Kashan Aquifer
  • Salinization
  • Contamination mechanism
  • Nitrate. Nitrite
]1]. Singh ET, Gupta A, Singh NR. Groundwater quality in Imphal West district, Manipur, India, with multivariate statistical analysis of data. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International. 2013; 20:2421-30.
]2]. Karami GH, Jafari H, Ghanaatian H. Contamination of groundwater resources in the agricultural land of Magan plain, Semnan province. Journal of Advanced Applied Geology. 2016; 21:45-55 [Persian].
[3]. Pawar N., Sheikh I. Nitrate pollution of ground waters from shallow basaltic aquifers, Deccan Trap Hydrologic Province, India. Environmental Geology. 1995;25(3):197–204.
[4]. Gordon B, Callan P, Vickers C. WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality. World Health Organization (WHO). 4th ed. Geneva. Switzerland. 2008;38(3): 564 p.
[5]. ISIRI. Drinking water physical and chemical specification. Institute of Standard and Industrial Research of Iran, Tehran. 1053. 5th revision. 2013;26p [Persian].
[6]. Amarlooei A, Nazeri M, Sayeh miri K, Nourmoradi H, Sayehmiri K, Khodarahmi F. Investigation on the concentration of nitrate and nitrite in Ilam ground waters. Scientific Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences (sjimu). 2014;22(4):34-41 [Persian].
[7]. Khodai K, Mohammadzadeh H, Nasseri H, Shahsavari AH. Evaluating of nitrate contamination in Dezful-Andimeshk plain and identifying of nitrate sources using 15N and 18O Isotopes. Iranian Journal of Geology. 2012; 22(6):93-111 [Persian].
]8]. Majumdar D, Gupta N. Nitrate pollution of ground water and associated human health disorders. Indian Journal of Environmental Health. 2000;42(1):28–39.
[9]. Jafari Malekabadi A, Afyuni M, Mousavi S.F, Khosravi A. Nitrate concentration In groundwater In Isfahan province. Journal of Water and Soil Science (JWSS). 2004;8(3):69-82 [Persian].
]10]. Khosravi Dehkordi A, Afyuni M, Mousavi S.F. Investigation of nitrate concentration changes of groundwater in Zayandehroud margin in Isfahan province. Journal of Environmetal Studies. 2006;32(39):33-40 [Persian].
[11]. Selek Z, Yetis A. Assessment of nitrate contamination in a transnational groundwater basin: a case study in the Ceylanpinar Plain, Turkey. Environ Earth Science. 2017;76:698: 1-11.
[12]. Mirzavand M, Ghazavi R, Sadatinejad S., Ghasemieh H, Vali A. Investigation of Kashan aquifer situation using electric resistance method with Shelomberje arrangement. Desert Ecosystem Engineering Journal. 2014;3(4):43-56 [Persian].
 
[13]. Mirzavand M, Ghazavi R. A stochastic modelling technique for groundwater level forecasting in an arid environment using time series methods. Water Resources Management. 2015;29(4):1315–1328.
]14]. Clark ID. Groundwater geochemistry and isotopes. Taylor & Francis Group; 2015. 471 p.
]15]. http://www.aqion.de/site/92.
[16]. Amiri V, Nakhaei M, Lak R, Kholghi M. Assessment of seasonal groundwater quality and potential saltwater intrusion: a study case in Urmia coastal aquifer (NW Iran) using the groundwater quality index (GQI) and hydrochemical facies evolution diagram (HFE-D). Stoch Environ Res Risk Assess. 2016;30(5):1473–1484.
 
]17]. Mehdinia SM, Nikravesh SH. Determining contamination of drinking water distribution network in Damghan city. Journal of Water & Wastewater. 2002;43:60-1 [Persian].
[18]. Menció A, Mas-pla J, Otero N, Regàs O, Boy-roura M, Puig R, et al. Nitrate pollution of groundwater ; all right … , but nothing else ? Science of Total Environment. 2015; 539:241-251.
]19]. Xing L, Guo H, Zhan Y. Groundwater hydrochemical characteristics and processes along flow paths in the North China plain. Journal of Assian Earth Science. 2013;70-71:250-64.