کاربرد داده‌های ماهواره‌ای در برآورد نیاز آب زیست محیطی تالاب ها در مناطق باداده‌های محدود (مطالعۀ: موردی تالاب کانی برازان)

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه مهندسی آب و پژوهشکدۀ مهندسی و مدیریت منابع آب دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

2 گروه محیط زیست، مهندسین مشاور آبان پژوه

3 دانشجوی دکتری مهندسی منابع آب دانشگاه ساسکاچوان، کانادا

چکیده

تعیین و تأمین نیاز آب زیست‌محیطی اکوسیستم‌ها از جمله تالاب‏ها یکی از ‌راهکارهای مؤثر به منظور پیشگیری از تخریب و اطمینان از تداوم خدمات اکوسیستمی آنهاست. در مطالعۀ حاضر تعیین نیاز آبی تالاب بین‌المللی کانی‌برازان )در جنوب دریاچۀ ارومیه( با اتخاذ یک رویکرد ترکیبی هیدرواکولوژیکی مد نظر قرار گرفت. به این منظور، با استفاده از داده‏های ماهواره‏ای تغییرات بلندمدت سطوح آب و پوشش گیاهی تحلیل شد. سپس، تحلیل فراوانی سطوح غرقابی و دوره‌های رشد پوشش گیاهی تالاب و برآورد مقادیر تبخیر‌ـ تعرق از سطح انجام شد. در ادامه، بر مبنای مطالعات میدانی انجام‌شده از تابستان 1394 تا پاییز 1395، هیدروگرافی تالاب، گونه‏های گیاهی و پرندگان تالاب و مکان‏یابی زیستگاه‏های آنها تعیین شده و گونه‏های شاخص مشخص شدند. بر مبنای عمق مطلوب و الگوی‏ ‏مکانی زیستگاه‏های گونه‏های شاخص گیاهان و پرندگان زمستان‌گذران در معرض خطر و تهدید، سطوح غرقابی و احجام مطلوب تالاب تعیین شد. در نهایت، با استفاده از سری زمانی احجام تاریخی تالاب و مدل‌سازی معکوس بیلان آب، رژیم جریان ورودی تالاب از منابع سطحی برای تأمین نیاز آبی تالاب برآورد شد. نتایج مطالعۀ حاضر نشان می‏دهد در شرایط نرمال جریان زیست‌محیطی مورد نیاز تالاب کانی‏برازان معادل 5/16 میلیون مترمکعب در سال، شامل دو پیک جریان به‌ترتیب در اواسط پاییز و اواخر بهار است. نتایج مطالعۀ حاضر می‏تواند در برنامه‌ریزی منابع آب سطحی و زیرزمینی تغذیه‌کنندۀ تالاب و نیز مدیریت کیفیت آب تالاب استفاده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Application of Satellite Data for Determining Environmental Water Requirement of Wetlands in Data-sparse Regions (The Case of Kanibrazan Wetland, Iran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Somaje Sima 1
  • Kourosh Kavousi 2
  • Behdad Saed 3
2 Aban pazhuh Consulting Engineering
3 PhD Student in Water Resources Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Canada
چکیده [English]

Determining and supplying environmental water requirements (EWRs) of ecosystems including wetlands is one of the most effective ways to mitigate wetlands degradation and to ensure the provision of ecosystem services. This study aims at determining EWR of the Kanibrazan International wetland, south of Lake Urmia, using a combined hydro-ecological approach. The wetland’s water and vegetation areas were extracted using long-term satellite data. Moreover, frequency analysis of the inundated areas, investigation of the vegetation life cycle, and estimation of evapotranspiration (ET) from the wetland were conducted. Subsequently, through multi-season field surveys from summer 2015 to fall 2016, the wetland’s hydrography and spatial distribution of vegetation and birds’ habitat in the wetland were obtained. Then, indicator vegetation and winter bird species were identified and used to determine appropriate inundation areas and volumes. Finally, satellite-derived inundated areas and ETs were used in an inverse water balance model to calculate the associated inflow regime to the wetland. Results show that in a normal year an annual volume of 16.5 MCM, with a tow-peak hydrograph in mid-fall and late spring is required to be supplied as EWR of the Kanibrazan wetland. The findings of this study can be applied in the planning of the surface and groundwater water resources feeding wetland and to better manage wetland’s water quality. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Environmental Water Requirement
  • Combined approach
  • vegetation cover
  • Winter birds
  • Indicator Species
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