Anabasis aphylla & Pteropyrum aucheri Canopy Cover Effect on Generating Stemflow in Arid Regions

Document Type : Research Article



Stemflow is a part of precipitation which enters in to the soil through stem and branches. In this paper, we studied the stem flow features of Anabasis aphylla as a bush and Pteropyrum aucheri as a shrub in Northwest of Isfahan. Stemflow production mechanism as well as the effects of canopy cover on this system was investigated during precipitation seasons in 2013 and 2014. A rain simulator was used to achieve this aim. Three individual for each species with different canopy coverage were selected. The results showed 13.4% of gross precipitation as stemflow for A. aphylla. However, it is 18.4 for P. aucheri. Furthermore the mean funneling ratio were calculated 29 and 40 for A. aphylla and P. aucheri, respectively. Totally, results clearly showed the positive role of stems and brunches in producing stemflow for both species. In addition, small and large plant showed significant different amounts of stemflow for both species indicating the effect of crown canopy on stem flow. Concerning bushes and shrubs, this study proves that stemflow changes in a large amount inter and intra various vegetative forms with different canopy cover.


Main Subjects

1.   Aboal, J., et al., 1999, The measurement and modelling of the variation of stemflow in a laurel forest in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Journal of Hydrology, vol. 221, pp. 161-175.
2.   Belmonte Serrato, F., et al.,1998, simple technique for measuring rainfall interception by small shrub: interception flow collection box, Hydrological Processes, vol. 12, pp. 471-481.
3.   Carlyle‐Moses, D. and Price, A., 2006, Growing‐season stemflow production within a deciduous forest of southern Ontario, Hydrological processes, vol. 20, pp. 3651-3663.
4.   Crockford, R. and Richardson, D., 1990, Partitioning of rainfall in a eucalypt forest and pine plantation in southeastern Australia: IV The relationship of interception and canopy storage capacity, the interception of these forests, and the effect on interception of thinning the pine plantation, Hydrological Processes, vol. 4, pp. 169-188.
5.   Crockford, R. and Richardson, D., 2000, Partitioning of rainfall into throughfall, stemflow and interception: effect of forest type, ground cover and climate, Hydrological processes, vol. 14, pp. 2903-2920.
6.   Enright, N., 1987, Stemflow as a nutrient source for nikau palm (Rhopalostylis sapida) in a New Zealand forest, Australian Journal of Ecology, vol. 12, pp. 17-24.
7.   Ford, E. and Deans, J., 1978, The effects of canopy structure on stemflow, throughfall and interception loss in a young Sitka spruce plantation, Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 15, pp. 905-917.
8.   Helvey, J. and Patric, J., 1965, Canopy and litter interception of rainfall by hardwoods of eastern United States, Water Resour, Water Resources Research, vol. 1, pp. 193–206.
9.   Herwitz, SR, 1986, Infiltration‐excess caused by Stemflow in a cyclone‐prone tropical rainforest, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, vol. 11, pp. 401-412.
10. Herwitz, SR, 1986, Episodic stemflow inputs of magnesium and potassium to a tropical forest floor during heavy rainfall events, Oecologia, vol. 70, pp. 423-425.
11. Herwitz, SR, 1987, Raindrop impact and water flow on the vegetative surfaces of trees and the effects on stemflow and throughfall generation, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, vol. 12, pp. 425-432.
12. Herwitz, SR and Levia, DF, 1997, Mid‐winter stemflow drainage from bigtooth aspen (Populus grandidentata Michx.) in central Massachusetts, Hydrological Processes, vol. 11, pp. 169-175.
13. Hutchison, B., et al., 1986, The architecture of a deciduous forest canopy in eastern Tennessee, USA, Journal of Ecology, vol. 74, pp. 635–646.
14. Jian, S., et al., 2013, Characteristics of Caragana korshinskii and Hippophae rhamnoides stemflow and their significance in soil moisture enhancement in Loess Plateau, China, Journal of Arid Land, vol. 6, pp. 105-116.
15. Johnson, R., 1990, The interception, throughfall and stemflow in a forest in Highland Scotland and the comparison with other upland forests in the UK, Journal of Hydrology, vol. 118, pp. 281-287.
16. Levia, DF., et al., 2010, Temporal variability of stemflow volume in a beech-yellow poplar forest in relation to tree species and size, Journal of hydrology, vol. 380, pp. 112-120.
17. Levia, DF. and Herwitz, SR., 2002, Winter chemical leaching from deciduous tree branches as a function of branch inclination angle in central Massachusetts, Hydrological Processes, vol. 16, pp. 2867-2879.
18. Levia, DF. and Herwitz, SR., 2005, Interspecific variation of bark water storage capacity of three deciduous tree species in relation to stemflow yield and solute flux to forest soils, CATENA, vol. 64, pp. 117-137.
19. Levia, DF. and Frost, EE., 2003, A review and evaluation of stemflow literature in the hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles of forested and agricultural ecosystems, Journal of Hydrology, vol. 274, pp. 1-29.
20. Levia, DF. and Herwitz, SR., 2000, Physical properties of water in relation to stemflow leachate dynamics: implications for nutrient cycling, Canadian journal of forest research, vol. 30, pp. 662-666.
21. Li, X.-Y., et al., 2008, Stemflow in three shrubs and its effect on soil water enhancement in semiarid loess region of China, Agricultural and forest meteorology, vol. 148, pp. 1501-1507.
22. Li, X.-Y., et al., 2009, Connecting ecohydrology and hydropedology in desert shrubs: stemflow as a source of preferential flow in soils, Hydrology & Earth System Sciences, vol. 13, pp. 1133-1144
23. Llorens, P. and Domingo, F., 2007, Rainfall partitioning by vegetation under Mediterranean conditions. A review of studies in Europe, Journal of Hydrology, vol. 335, pp. 37-54.
24. Martinez-Meza, E. and Whitford, WG., 1996, Stemflow, throughfall and channelization of stemflow by roots in three Chihuahuan desert shrubs, Journal of Arid Environments, vol. 32, pp. 271-287.
25. Mauchamp, A. and Janeau, JL., 1993, Water funnelling by the crown of Flourensia cernua, a Chihuahuan Desert shrub, Journal of Arid Environments, vol. 25, pp. 299-306.
26. Návar, J., 1993, The causes of stemflow variation in three semi-arid growing species of northeastern Mexico, Journal of hydrology, vol. 145, pp. 175-190.
27. Navar, J. and Bryan, R., 1990, Interception loss and rainfall redistribution by three semi-arid growing shrubs in northeastern Mexico, Journal of Hydrology, vol. 115, pp. 51-63.
28. Pressland, A., 1973, Rainfall partitioning by an arid woodland (Acacia aneura F. Muell.) in south-western Queensland, Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 21, pp. 235-245.
29. Slatyer, R., 1965, Measurements of precipitation interception by an arid zone plant community (Acacia aneura F. MUELL), Unesco Arid Zone Research, vol. 25, pp. 181-192.
30. Staelens, J., et al., 2008, Rainfall partitioning into throughfall, stemflow, and interception within a single beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) canopy: influence of foliation, rain event characteristics, and meteorology, Hydrological Processes, vol. 22, pp. 33-45.
31. Van Elewijck, L., 1989, Influence of leaf and branch slope on stemflow amount, Catena, vol. 16, pp. 525-533.
32. Yang, Z., et al., 2008, Characteristics of stemflow for sand-fixed shrubs in Mu Us sandy land, Northwest China, Chinese Science Bulletin, vol. 53, pp. 2207-2214.
33. Zinke, P., Forest interception studies in the United States, Forest Hydrology, Pergamon Press, 1967, pp. 137-161.
Volume 1, Issue 2 - Serial Number 2
October 2014
Pages 133-142
  • Receive Date: 10 May 2014
  • Revise Date: 12 February 2015
  • Accept Date: 13 November 2014
  • First Publish Date: 13 November 2014