The use of chlorophyll fluorescence indices to identify environmental stresses (drought and salinity) in leaves of Mutica Pistachio (Pistacia mutica L.)

Document Type : Research Article


1 Associate professor, Faculty of Natural Resources and Geosciences, University of Kashan, Iran

2 - Associate professor, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran,


High temperature, high radiance, low vapor pressure, and lack of precipitation in most months characterize arid ecosystems. Under these conditions, tree crops such as pistachio suffer from drought combined with salinity stress. In order to investigation effects of combined salinity and drought stress on function of photosynthetic apparatus, Mutica pistachio (Pistacia mutica) seedlings were subjected to four osmotic stress treatments (induced by NaCl and polyethylene glycol) including: control, low osmotic stress, moderate osmotic stress and high osmotic stress. Thus, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters such as F0, Fm,Fv,m,0,m,v, Fs,F0 /Fm,Fv/ Fm,Fv/F0,v/Fʹm, ΦPSII,ETR and qP were measured and calculated. Significant alterations in F0 and Fm were just observed at high osmotic stress that show injure to photon transfer process from antenna to reaction centers. Likewise, a significant reduction in Fv/ Fm at high osmotic stress depicted light photooxidation in photosystem II. Significant increase in F0 / Fm ratio at high osmotic stress appeared a suffering in functional performance of photosystem I. Significant alterations in ΦPSII and NPQ (as decrease and increase, respectively) showed a high non-photochemical dissipation of light energy in photosynthetic apparatus. Significant decrease in qP initiated at moderate osmotic stress and reached to the lowest at high osmotic stress. This reduction implies that light use efficiency by the plants has reduced. This investigation proved that the both groups of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (dependent and independent) have an important role to study the effects of environmental stresses on photosynthetic apparatus.


[1]. Abdeshahian, M., Nabipour M. and Meskarbashee M., 2010,Chlorophyll fluorescence as criterion for the diagnosis saltstress in wheat plants,World Academic Science Engineering and Technology, 71: 569-571.
[2]. Adish, M., Fekri, M. and Hokmabadi, H., 2010, Response of Badami-Zarand Pistachio Rootstock to Salinity Stress,International Journal of Nuts Related Science, 1(1): 1-11.
[3]. Ashraf, M. and O'Leary, J.W., 1996, Responses of some newly developed salt tolerant genotypes of spring wheat to salt stress - II. Water Relations and photosynthetic capacity. Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 45:29-39.
[4]. Bolhar-Nordenkampf, H. R. and Oquist, G., 1993, Chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool in photosynthesisresearch. In: Hall, D. O.; Scurlock, J. M. O.;Bolhar-Nordenkampf, H. R.; Leegood,R. C.; Long, S. P. (Ed.). Photosynthesis andproduction in a changing environment: a fieldand laboratory manual. London: Chapman & Hall,p. 193-206.
[5]. Bilger,W., and Bjorkman, O., 1990, Role of the xanthophyll cycle in Photoprotection Elucidatedby measurements of light-induced absorbance changes, fluorescence andphotosynthesis in leaves of Hedera canariensis,Photosynthesis Research, 25: 173–185.
[6]. Burlyn, E.M. and Merrill R.K., 1973, Osmotic potential of polyethylene glycol 6000. Plant Physiology, 51: 914-916.
[7]. Chaves, M.M., Flexas, J. and Pinheiro C., 2009, Photosynthesis under drought and salt stress: regulation mechanisms from whole plant to cell. Annals of Botany, 103: 551–560.
[8]. Chazen, O., Hartung, W. and Neumann, P.M., 1995,Different effects of PEG 6000 and Nacle on leaf development are associated with differential inhibition of root water transport,Plant, Cell and Environment, 18: 727-735.
[9]. Cousins, A.B., Adam, N.R, Wall, G.W., Kimball, B.A., Pinter, P.J., Ottman, M.J., Webber, A.N. and Leavitt, S.W., 2002, Photosystem II energy use, non-photochemical quenching and the xanthophyll cycle in Sorghum bicolorgrown under drought and free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) conditions,Plant, Cell and Environment, 25: 1551–1559.
[10]. De Lucena, ‍C.C, De Siqueira, D.L., Martinez, H.N. and Cecon, P.R., 2012, Salt stress change chlorophyll fluorescence in mango,Fruticultura Jaboticabal, 34(4): 1245-1255.
[11]. Dewan, M.L. and Famouri, J., 1964,The soils of Iran, Tehran University, Tehran.
[12]. Efeoğlu, B., Ekmekçi Y., and Çiçek, N., 2009, Physiological responses of threemaize cultivars to drought stress and recovery,South African Journal of Botany, 75:34–42.
[13]. Filella, I., Llusia J., Pinol J., and Peuelas, J., 1998, Leaf gas exchange and fluorescence of Phillyrea latifolia, Pistacia lentiscus and Quercus ilex saplings in severe drought and high temperature conditions, Environmental and Experimental Botany, 39: 213–220.
[14]. Genty, B., Briantais, J.M. and Baker, N.R., 1989, The relationshipbetween the quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transportand quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence,Biochimica et BiophyscaActa,990:87–92.
[15]. Gilmore, A.M., 2004, Chlorophyll a Fluorescence: A signature of Photosynthesis, G.C. Papageorgiou, and Govindjee (Eds.), Springer, Dordrecht, 555.
[16]. Hau-Xin, C., Wei-Jun L., Sha-Zhou A. and Hui-Yuan, G., 2004, Characteriation of PSII photochemistry and thermostability in salt treated Rumex leaves,Plant Physiology, 16: 257-264.
[17]. Jiang, C., Jiang G.M., Wang X., Li L.H., Biwas D.K. and Li, Y.G., 2006, Increased photosynthetic activities and thermostability of photosystem II with leaf development of elm seedlings (Ulmus pumila) probed by the fast fluorescence rise OJIP,Environmental and Experimental Botan, 58: 261-68.
[18]. Kalaji, H.M., Govindjee, Karolina B., Janussz K. and Krystina, Z-G., 2011, Effects of salt stress on photosystem II efficiency and CO2assimilation of twoSyrian barley landraces, Environmental and Experimental Botany,73: 64-72.
[19]. Karimi, H.R. and Kafkas, S., 2012, Genetic relationships among Pistacia species studied by SAMPL markers, International Journal of Nuts and Related Sciences, 3(1):49-56.
[20]. Kanwal, H., Ashraf M. and Shahbaz, M., 2011, Assessment of salt tolerance of some newly developed and candidate wheat (triticum aestivum L.) cultivars using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence attributes,Pakistan Journal of Botany, 43(6): 2693-2699.
[21]. Kaouther, Z., Ben Fredj M., Mani F. and Hannachi, C., 2012, Impact of salt stress (NaCl) on growth, chlorophyll content andfluorescence of Tunisian cultivars of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.),Journal of Stress Physiology and Biochemistry, 8(4): 236-252.
[22]. Koyro, H.W., 2006, Effect of salinity on growth, photosynthesis, water relations and solute composition of the potential cash crop halophyte Plantago coronopus,Environmental and Experimental Botany, 56:136-146.
[23]. Krall, J.P. and Edwards G.E.,1992, Relationship between photosystem II activity and CO2fixation in leaves,Physiologia Plantarum,86: 180–187.
[24]. Liu, M., Qi H., Zhang Z.P., Song Z.W., Kou T.J., Zhang W.J. and Yu, J.L., 2012, Response of photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence to drought stress in two maize cultivars,African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7(34): 4751-4760.
[25]. Loukehaich, R., Elyachioui M., Belhabib N. and Douira, A., 2011, Identifying multiple physiological responsesassociated with salinity-tolerance for evaluatingthree tomato cultivars selected from Moroccanterritory,Journal of Animal and Plant Science, 10(1): 1219- 1231.
[26]. Melis, A., 1999, Photosystem II damage and repair cycle in chloroplasts:what modulates the rate of photo-damage in vivo? Trends Plant Science, 4:130–135.
[27]. Muller, P., Li X.P. and Niyogi, K.K., 2001, Non-Photochemical quenching, A Response to excess light energy, Plant Physiology, 125) 4):1558-1566.
[28]. Murata, N., Takahashi, S., Nishiyama, Y. and Allakhverdiev, S.I., 2007, Photoinhibition of photosystem II under environmental stress, Biochimica et BiophyscaActa,1767: 414-421.
[29]. Naumann, J.C., Anderson J.E. and Young, D.R., 2008a, Linking physiological responses, chlorophyll fluorescence and hyperspectral imagery to detect salinity stress using the physiological reflectance index in the coastal shrub Myrica cerifera,Remote Sensing of Environment,112:3865-3875.
[30]. Nepomuceno, A.L., Oosterhuis, D.M. and Stewart, J.M., 1998, Physilogical response of cotton leaves and roots to water deficit induced by polyethylene glycol,Environmental and Experimental Botany, 40: 29-41.
[31]. Percival, G.C., 2004, Evaluation of physiological tests as predictors of young trees establishment and growth,Journal of Arboriculture,30(2):80–92.
[32]. Percival, G.C., 2005, Use of chlorophyll fluorescence to identify chemical and environmental stresses in leaf tissue of three oak species, Journal of Arboriculture, 31(5):215–227.
[33]. Picchioni, G.A. and Miyamoto S., 1990, Salt effects on growth and ion uptake of pistachio rootstock seedlings, Journal ofAmerican Society forHorticultural Science,115: 647-563.
[34]. Ranjbar-Fordoei, A., Samson R., and Van Damme, P., 2006, Chlorophyll fluorescence performance of sweet almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) D. Webb) in response to salinity stress,Photosynthetica, 44(4):513-522.
[35]. Ranjbar-Fordoei, A., Samson R., Lemeur R., and Van Damme, P., 2000, Effects of drought stress induced by polyethylene glycol on physiological performance two pistachio species (Pistasia mutica and P. khinjuk),Photosynthetica,38(3)443-447.
[36]. Richardson, A.D., Aikens M., Berlyn G.P., and Marshall, P., 2004, Drought stress and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) seedlings. Effects of an organic biostimulant on plant health،stress tolerance and detection of stress effects with instrument-based, non-invasive methods,Journal of Arboriculture, 30(1):52–60.
[37]. Rohâcek, K., 2002, Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: the definitions, photosynthetic meaning, and mutual relationships,Photosynthetica, 40(1):13-29.
[38]. Schreiber, U., Schliwa U. and W. Bilger, 1986,Continuous recording of photochemical and non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching with a new type of modulation fluorometer,PhotosynthesisResearch, 10: 51-62.
[39]. Schreiber, U., Bilger, W., Hormann, H. and Neubauer, C., 1998, Chlorophyll fluorescence as a diagnostic tool: basics and some aspects of practicalrelevance. In: Raghavendra, A. S. (Ed.). Photosynthesis:a comprehensive treatise. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, p. 320-336.
[40]. Suriyan, C. and Chalermpol, K., 2009, Effect of salt stress on proline accumulation, photosynthetic ability and growth characters in two maize cultivars, Pakistan Journal of Botany, 41: 87-98.
[41]. Xin-Guang Zhu, Govindjee, Neil R. Baker, Eric de Sturler, Donald R. Ort and Stephen, P. Long, 2005, Chlorophyll a fluorescence induction kinetics in leaves predicted from a model describing each discrete step of excitation energy and electron transfer associated with Photosystem II, Planta, 223: 114-133.
[42]. Yamane, Y., Kashino Y., Koile H. and Sato, H.K., 1997, Increase in the fluorescence F0 level reversible inhibition ofPhotosystem II reaction center byhigh-temperature treatments in higher plants,Photosynthesis Research, 52(1):57-64.
[43]. Zhang, Y., Xie, Z., Wang, Y., Su, P., An, L. and Gao H., 2011,Effect of water stress on leaf photosynthesis, chlorophyll content and growth of oriental lily, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 58(5): 844–850.
[44]. Zarco-Tejada, P.J., Berni J.A.J., Suarez L., Sepulcre-Canto,G., Morales F. andMiller, J.R., 2009, Imaging chlorophyll fluorescence with anairborne narrow-band multispectral camera for vegetation stressdetection,Remote Sensing of Environment,113: 1262–1275.
Volume 2, Issue 3 - Serial Number 3
September 2015
Pages 253-260
  • Receive Date: 03 October 2015
  • Revise Date: 22 November 2015
  • Accept Date: 01 December 2015
  • First Publish Date: 01 December 2015