Investigating the effects of land use on runoff generation using WetSpa model

Document Type : Research Article


1 Faculty of Natural Resources, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran

2 Department of Range and Watershed Management Engineering, Lorestan University, Lorestan, Iran

3 College of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Mazandaran, Iran

4 Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Engineering, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

5 Bureau of Water Resources Research, Golestan Regional Water Authority, Gorgan, Iran


The main objective of this research was assessing the effects of land use on runoff parameters such as total runoff, surface runoff and peak discharges at the Baghsalian watershed as a case study site. At first, land use maps of 1986 and 2012 were prepared using a synthetic method and landsat images. WetSpa model was applied to simulate daily runoff for 8 years (the first 5 years as calibration and the last 3 years as validation periods) with land use maps of years 1986 and 2012. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and aggregation measure was used to assess the accuracy of WetSpa model. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency was obtained 0.61% and 0.56% for the calibration and validation periods respectively. Moreover the aggregation measure criterion had values of 64% and 62% for the calibration and validation periods respectively. These criteria showed that the WetSpa model is a suitable model to simulate runoff in the Baghsalian watershed. As a result of land use changes from 1986 to 2012, simulated total runoff, surface runoff and peak discharges rates increased, while the rate of increase in surface runoff was higher than the rate of increase in total runoff. Total run off and surface run off for land use 1986 was 431.62 and 158.77 million m3 respectively and pick discharge was 27.45. These values for land use 2012 was 480.31, 182.86 and 30.94.


Main Subjects

. بیات، باقر، 1389، شبیه‏سازی جریان رودخانه و تحلیل تأثیرات تغییر کاربری روی آن با استفاده از مدل WetSpa در محیط GIS (مطالعۀ موردی: حوضۀ آبخیز مرک، استان کرمانشاه)، پایان‏نامۀ کارشناسی ارشد سنجش از دور و GIS، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، 144 صفحه.
2. خلیقی سیگارودی، شهرام؛ زینتی شعاع، طیبه؛ سلاجقه، علی؛ کهندل، اصغر؛ مرتضایی فریزهندی، قاسم، 1388، شبیه‏سازی بارش رواناب به روش نیمه‏توزیعی در حوضه‏های آبخیز با آمار کم (مطالعۀ موردی: حوضۀ آبخیز لتیان)، مجموعه مقالات پنجمین همایش ملی علوم و مهندسی آبخیزداری ایران، صص 180-188، اردیبهشت‌ماه، گرگان، ایران
3. متکان، علی‏اکبر؛ زینی‏وند، حسین؛ بیات، باقر؛ غفوری، عبدالمحمد؛ میرباقری‏، بابک، 1390، مدل‌سازی تغییرات مکانی‌ـ زمانی جریان زیرسطحی و نفوذ با استفاده از مدل WetSpa و GIS (مطالعۀ موردی: حوضۀ آبریز مرک، استان کرمانشاه)، دومین کنفرانس ملی پژوهش‏های کاربری منابع آب ایران، اردیبهشت‌ماه، ایران
4. محمدی، مجید، 1393، پیش‏بینی اثر تغییرات کاربری اراضی بر رواناب با استفاده از مدل‏های CLUE-s و WetSpa به‏منظور مدیریت حوضۀ آبخیز باغه‌‌سالیان در استان گلستان، رسالۀ دکتری علوم و مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی، 108 صفحه.
5- Andersen, Jens Christian, Refsgaard, Jens Christian, and Jensen, Karsten Hogh, 2001, Distributed hydrological modeling of the Senegal River Basin-model construction and validation. Journal ofHydrology, vol 247, pp. 200–214.
6- Bahremand, Abdolreza., and De Smedt, Florimond., 2008, Distributd hydrological modeling and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis in Torysa watershed, Slovakia. Water Resource Management, vol 22 p. 393-408.
7- Bahremand, Abdolreza., De Smedt, Florimond., Corluy, Jan., Liu, Yong Bo., Poorova, Jana., Velcicka, Lucia., and Kunikova, Elena., 2007, WetSpa model application for assessing reforestation impacts on floods in Margecany-Hornad watershed, Slovakia. Water Resource Management, vol 21 pp. 1373-1391.
8- Benaman, J., Shoemaker, Christine A., and Haith, D.A., 2005, Calibration and validation of soil and water assessment tool on an agricultural watershed in upstate New York. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, vol10 pp. 363–374.
9- Cornish, P.M., 1993, The effects on logging and forest regeneration on water yield in moist eucalypt forest in New South Wales, Australia. Journal of Hydrology, vol 150 pp. 301–322.
10- De Roo, Ad., Schmuck, Guido., Perdigao, Vanda., and Thielen, Jutta., 2003, The influence of historic land use changes and future planned land use scenarios on floods in the Oder catchment. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, vol 28 pp. 1291-1300.
11- Doherty, John E., Hunt, Randall J., and Tonkin, Matthw J., 2010, Approaches to highly parameterized inversion-A guide to using PEST for model-parameter and predictive-uncertainty analysis: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010–5211, 71 p
12- Edwards, K.A., 1979, The water balance of the Mbeya experimental catchments. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, vol 43 pp.231– 247.
13- Elfert, Simon., and Bormann, Helge., 2010, Simulated impact of past and possible future land use changes on the hydrological response of the Northern German lowland Hunte catchment. Journal of Hydrology, vol 383 pp. 245-255.
14- Fullen, Michael, 1998, Effects of grass ley set-aside on runoff, erosion and organic matter levels in sandy soils in East Shropshire, UK. Soil and Tillage Research, vol 46 pp. 41– 49.
15- Henriksen, Hans Jorgen., Troldborg, Lars., Nyegaard, Per., Sonnenborg, Torben Obel., Refsgaard, Jens Christian., and Madsen, Bjarne., 2003, Methodology for construction, calibration and validation of a national hydrological model for Denmark. Journal of Hydrology, vol 280 pp. 52–71.
16- Hietel, Elke, Waldhardt, Rainer, and Otte, Annette, 2004, Analysing land-cover changes in relation to environmental variables in Hesse, Germany. Landscape Ecology, vol 19 pp. 473–489.
17- Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa., and Bardossy, Andras., 2004, Modeling of the effect of land use changes on the generation of a river basin through parameter regionalization of a watershed model. Journal of Hydrology, vol 292 pp. 281–295.
18- Lal, R., 1981, Deforestation of tropical rainforest and hydrological problems. In: Lal R, Russell EW (eds) Tropical agricultural hydrology. Wiley, New York, pp. 131–140.
19- Lambin, Eric F., 1997, Modelling and monitoring land-cover change processes in tropical regions. Progress in Physical Geography, vol 21 pp. 375–393.
20- Liu, Yong Bo., Gebremeskel, S., De Smedt, Florimond., and Pfister, Laurent, 2003, A diffusive transport approach for flow routing in GIS-based flood modeling. Journal of Hydrology, vol 283 pp. 91–106.
21- Liu, Yong Bo., De Smedt, Florimond., Hoffmann, Lucien, and Pfister, Laurent, 2004, Assessing land use impacts on flood processes in complex terrain by using GIS and modeling approach, Luxembourg. Environmental Modeling and Assessment, vol 9 pp. 227-235.
22- Mohammad, Ayed G., and Adam, Mohammad A., 2010, The impact of vegetative cover type on runoff and soil erosion under different land uses. Catena, vol 81 pp. 97–103.
23- Mohammady, Majid., Morady, Hamidreza., Zeinivand, Hossein., and Temme, Arnaud, 2015 A Comparison of Supervised, Unsupervised and Synthetic Land use Classification Methods in the North of Iran. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, vol 12 pp. 1515-1526.
24- Nash, John Eamoon, and Sutcliffe, J.V., 1970, River flow forecasting through conceptual models, Part 1, A discussion of principles. Journal of Hydrology, vol 10 pp. 282–290.
25- Neary, Daniel G., Ice, George G., and Jackson, C. Rhett, 2009, Linkages between forest soils and water quality and quantity. Forest Ecology Management, vol 258 pp. 2269–2281.
26- Ott, B., and Uhlenbrook, Stefan, 2004, Quantifying the impact of land use changes at the event and seasonal time scale using a process-oriented catchment model. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol 8 pp. 62–78.
27- Pereira, Donizete dos Reis, de Mello, Carlos Rogerio, de Silva, Antonio Marciano, and Yanagi, Silvia de Nazare Monterio, 2010, Evapotranspiration and estimation of aerodynamic and stomatal conductance in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in Mantiqueira Range region, MG. Cerne, vol 16 pp. 32– 40.
28- Safari, Alireza., De Smedt, Florimond. and Moreda, Fekadu., 2012, WetSpa model application in the distributed model intercomparison project (DMIP2). Journal of Hydrology, vol 418–419 pp. 78–89.
29- Saghafian, Bahram., Farazjoo, Hasan., Bozorgi, Babak., and Yazdandoost, Farhad., 2008, Flood intensification due to change in land use. Water Resources Management, vol 22 pp. 1051-1067.
30- Sahin, Vildan, Hall, Michael J., 1996, The effects of afforestation and deforestation on water yields. Journal of Hydrology, vol 178 pp. 293–309.
31- Tavakoli, Mohsen., De Smedt, Florimond., Vansteenkiste, Thomas., and Willems, Patrick., 2014, Impact of climate change and urban development on extreme flows in the Grote Nete watershed, Belgium. Natural Hazards, vol 71 pp. 2127–2142.
32- Terpstra, J., van Mazijk, Albert, 2001, Computer aided evaluation of planning scenarios to assess the impact of land-use changes on water balance. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, vol 26 pp. 523-527.
33- Thomson, Allison M., Brown, Robert A., Rosenberg, Norman J., Srinivasan, Raghavan, and Izaurralde, R. Cesar, 2005, Climate change impacts for the conterminous USA: an integrated assessment. Climate Change, vol 69 pp. 67–88.
34- Van der Velde, Ype, Lyon, Steve W., and Destouni, Georgia, 2013, Data-driven regionalization of river discharges and emergent land cover—evapotranspiration relationships across Sweden. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmosphere, vol 118 pp. 2576–87.
35- Wang, Zhong-Min., Batelaan, Okke., and De Smedt, Florimond., 1997, Adistributed model for water and energy transfer between soil, plants and atmosphere (WetSpa). Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, vol 21 pp. 189-193.
36- Zeinivand, Hossein., 2009, Development of spatially distributed hydrological WetSpa modules for snowmelt, soil erosion and sediment transport. Ph.D. Thesis, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium. 208 p.
Volume 2, Issue 4
January 2016
Pages 357-369
  • Receive Date: 06 August 2015
  • Revise Date: 18 April 2016
  • Accept Date: 13 February 2016
  • First Publish Date: 13 February 2016
  • Publish Date: 22 December 2015