Impressionability of Suspended Sediment from Land use changes in Dinevar Watershed of Kermanshah Province

Document Type : Research Article


1 Departmentof Natural Resources, Faculty of Agricultural, RaziUniversity, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Departmentof Rangeland and Watershed, Facultyof Natural Resources, Malayer university, Malayer, Iran

3 M.Sc. Student, Department of Rangeland and Watershed, Faculty of Natural Resources, Malayer university, Malayer, Iran


The devastating impact of land use change in the watershed is increasing the generation rate of sediment and entrance to rivers and sedimentation in reservoirs. According to this, studying on impact of land use change on hydrological process is necessary. Aim of this study was investigating the impact of land use change on suspended sediment during 1994 to 2010 by SWAT model in Dinevar watershed. SUFI-2 program was used for SWAT calibration and validation. The results of NS and R2 indicators above of 50 and 60 percent for both calibration and validation steps respectively imply to the model efficiency to hydrology data simulating in Dinevar watershed. The analysis of land use over a period of 16 years showed that the greatest change was for agricultural land more than 30 percent and the minimum was occurred for residential area and roads (3.25%). The results of the suspended sediment study showed the significant effect of land use change on sediment generated in the study period. So that the maximum amount of suspended sediment in 1994, 18.1 grams per liter, but this amount in 2010 reached to 65/12 gram per liter.


Main Subjects


    1. Shi, P.J., Yuan, Y., Zheng, J., Wang, J.A., Ge, Y. and Qiu, G.Y. The effect of land use/cover change on surface runoff in Shenzhen region, China, Catena. 2007; 69:31-35.
    2. Alansi, A.W., Amin, M.S.M., Abdul Halim, G., Shafri, H.Z.M., and Aimrun, W. Validation of SWAT model for stream flow simulation and forecasting in Upper Bernam humid tropical river basin. Hydrology Earth System. 2009; 6: 7581-7609.
    3. Saadati, H., Gholami, S.A. Sharifi, F. and Ayoubzadeh, S. A. An investigation of the effects of land use change on simulating surface runoff using SWAT mathematical model (Case Study: Kasilian Catchment Area), Iranian Journal of Natural Resources. 2006; 59(2): 301-313. (In Persian)
    4. Ghafari, G., Ghodosi, J., Ahmadi, H. The effect of land use changes on watershed hydrology reactions, Journal of water and soil conservation. 2009; 16(1):163-180. (In Persian)
    5. Rezazade, M. S., Ganjali khani, M. and Kermani, M. Z. N. Comparing the performance of semi-distributed hydrological model SWAT and integrated model HEC - HMS in the simulation flow rate (Case study: Ab bakhsha watershed), Ecohydrology journal. 2015; 2:(4), 479-467. (In Persian)
    6. Vafakhah, M., Javadi, M. R. and Najafi Majd, J. The impact of land use change on the runoff in the watershed of the river Chalus, Ecohydrology journal.2015; 2:(2), 211-220. (In Persian)
    7. Mohamadi, M., Moradi, H. R., Pourghasemi, H. R. and Farazjoo, H. The impact of land use change on the runoff by using WetSpa, Ecohydrology journal. 2015; 2:(4), 357-369. (In Persian)
    8. Rostamian, R., Mosavi, F., Heidarpour, M., Efyoni, M. and AbaspourK. Runoff and sediment estimation by using SWAT 2000 in Behesht Abad watershed. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources. 2008; 12 (46): 517-531.(In Persian)
    9. Talebizadeh, M., Morid, S., Ayyoubzadeh, S.A., and Ghasemzadeh, M.Uncertainty Analysis in Sediment Load Modeling Using ANN and SWAT Model. Water Resour Manage. 2009; DOI 10.1007/s11269-009-9522-2.(In Persian)
    10. Alavinia M. and Nasiri S.Simulation sediment yield using SWAT Model, 8th International River Engineering Conference Shahid Chamran University. 2010; 26-28 Jan, Ahwaz. (In Persian)
    11. Kazemi Khaledi, H.Sediment estimation using WEPP model and comparing with SWAT (Case study: Ammame watershed), M.Sc. thesis, Tarbiat modares university.2009; 123p.(In Persian)
    12. Bazrkar, M. Mathematical model SWAT application in nutrients simulation to determine the contribution of pollution sources in Ilam dam basin, M.Sc. thesis, Tarbiat modares university.2011; 154p.(In Persian)
    13. Qiu, L.J., Zheng, F.L, and Yin, R.Sh. SWAT- based runoff and sediment simulation in a small watershed, the loessial hilly-gullied region of China: capabilities and challenges, International Journal of Sediment Research. 2012; 27: 226-234.
    14. Kimwaga, R. J., Bukirwa, F., Banadda,N., Wali, U.G., Nhapi,I., and Mashauri D.A. Modeling the Impact of Land Use Changes on Sediment Loading Into Lake Victoria Using SWAT Model: A Case OF Simiyu Catchment Tanzania, The Open Environmental Engineering Journal. 2012; 5: 66-76.
    15. Mukundan, R., Radcliffe, D.E., and Risse, L. M. Spatial resolution of soil data and channel erosion effects on SWAT model predictions of flow and sediment, Jurnal of soil and water conservation. 2012; 65 (2): 92-104.
    16. Ayana. A.B., Edossa.D.C. and Kositsakulchai, E. Simulation of Sediment Yield using SWAT Model in Fincha Watershed, Ethiopia Kasetsart Journal. 2012; 46 : 283 - 297.
    17. Santos, J., Nunes, J., sampaio, E., Moreira, M., Lima, J., Jacinto, R. and Corte-RealJ. Climate and Landuse Change Impacts on hydrological processes and soil erosion in a dry Mediterranean agro-forested catchment, southern Portugal. Hydrology and earth system sciences discussions. 2014; 16: 714-730.
    18. Abbaspour, K. C., C. A. Johnson and M. Th. Van Genuchten. Estimating uncertain flow and transport parameters using a sequential uncertainty fitting procedure, Vadose Zone. 2004; 3: 1340-1352.
    19. Schuol, J., Abbaspour,K.C.,Srinivasan, Y.H., and A., Zehnder. Modeling blue and green water availability in Africa. Water resources research. 2008; 32: 18.
    20. Ayana. A.B., Edossa.D.C. and Kositsakulchai, E. Simulation of Sediment Yield using SWAT Model in Fincha Watershed, Ethiopia Kasetsart Journal. 2012; 46 : 283 - 297.
    21. Abbaspour, K. C., Yang, J., Maximov, I., Siber,R., Bogner, K., Mieleitner, J. et al. Modeling of hydrology and water quality in the pre-alpine/alpine Thur watershed using SWAT. Journal Hydrology. 2007; 333: 413-430.
    22. Franchini, M., Bernini, A., Barbetta, S., Moramarco, T. Forecasting discharges at the downstream end of a river reach through two simple Muskingum based procedures, Journal of Hydrology. 2011; 399: 335–352.
    23. Song, X., Kong, F., Zhu, Z. Application of Muskingum routing method with variable parameters in ungauged basin, Water Science and Engineering. 2011; 4(1): 1-12
    24. Justification studies of watershed management and renewable natural resources of Dinevar watershed. Department of natural resources of Kermanshah province, Saman Ab e Sarzamin consulting engineers.2010; 230p.(In Persian)
    25. Anwar, N.S. Simulated impact of land use dynamics on hydrology during a 20-year-period of Beles Basin in Ethiopia, Student thesis, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering,2010; 1-33.
    26. Tolson, B. A.and Shoemaker, C. A. Watershed modeling of the Cannonsville basin using SWAT2000: Model development, calibration and validation for the prediction of flow, sediment and phosphorus transport to the Cannonsville reservoir. Technical Report, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University. 2004; 159pp.
    27. Chu, T. W. and Shirmohammadi, A. Evaluation of the SWAT model’s hydrology component in thepiedmont physiographic region of Maryland Transion ASAE. 2004; 47(4): 1057-1073.
    28. Spruill, C.A., Workman, S.R. and Taraba, J.L. Simulation of daily and monthly stream discharge from small watershed using the SWAT model. Soil and Water Division of ASAE , 2000; 98(5): 1431-1440.
    29. Wang, X. and Melesse, A.M. Evaluation of the SWAT model’s snowmelt hydrology in a northwestern Minnesota watershed, Transactions of the ASAE. 2005; 48(4): 1-18.
    30. Saadati, H., S.A. Gholami, F. Sharifi and S.A. Ayoubzadeh. An investigation of the effects of land use change on simulating surface runoff using SWAT mathematical model (Case Study: Kasilian Catchment Area), Iranian Journal of Natural Resources. 2006; 59(2): 301-313. (In Persian)
    31. Wang, S., Kang, S., Zhang L. and Li, F. Modelling hydrological response to different land-use and climate change scenarios in the Zamu River basin of northwest China. Journal of Hydrological Processes.2008; 22: 2502-2510.
Volume 3, Issue 4
January 2017
Pages 611-621
  • Receive Date: 19 November 2016
  • Revise Date: 03 January 2017
  • Accept Date: 30 December 2016
  • First Publish Date: 30 December 2016