Evaluation of heavy elements contamination and its relationship with aggregation in the sediments of kardeh reservoir

Document Type : Research Article

Authors

1 M.Sc. Student of Watershed, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

Abstract

Today, water resources stored in reservoirs is one of the basic sources of drinking-water. The elements in the sediments of reservoirs are the most important factors affecting water quality. Unlike the primary plan, due to water shortage problems, nowadays, almost all the stored water in the Kardeh reservoir is allocated to drinking water. From the other side in the catchment area of this dam a lot of changes in terms of land use, the development of agricultural lands and the construction of the garden-Villa Has taken place. Therefore, Surveying the status of the reservoir sediment contamination by heavy metals is essential. In this research, first some cores of sediments from the reservoir was taken and the amounts of 9 heavy metals elements in the sediments were determined using ICP-OES. Reservoir sediment contaminations by heavy metals were studied, by using qualitative criteria of sediments. Then determine the aggregation of sediments by Nano particle size analiyzer machine, the relationship between the particle size with the amount and the type of heavy elements present in the sediments were studied. Based on the standards criteria, almost all the elements are at the acceptable ranges. It seems that the origin of these elements has been the local pollutants and not from sediments resulting from the transfer of the geological structure of the upstream areas. On the other hand trend of changes in particle size in the reservoir reflects the impact of flushing.
 
 
 
 
 
 

Keywords

Main Subjects


 
1. Hernandez L, Probst A, Probst JL, Ulrich E. Heavy metal distribution in some French forest soils: evidence for atmospheric contamination. The Science of the Total Environment. 2003; 312:195–219.
2. Doelsch E, Macary HS, Van de Kerchove V. Sources of very high heavy metal content in soils of volcanic island (La Re´union). Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 2006; 88:194– 197.
3. Tijani MN, Okunlola OA, Abimbola AF. Lithogenic concentrations of trace metals in soils and saprolites over crystalline basement rocks: A case study from SW Nigeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences. 2006; 46:427–438.
4. Upadhyay AK, Gupta KK, Sircar JK, Deb MK, Mundhara GL. Heavy metals in freshly deposited sediments of the river Subernarekha, India: an example of lithogenic and anthropogenic effects, Environ Geol. 2006; 50:397-403.
5. Jordan C, Zhang C, Higgins A. Using GIS and statistics to study influences of geology on probability features of surface soil geochemistry in Northern Ireland. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 2007; 93:135–152
6. Shakeri abdolmaleki AR. Assessment of pollution of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in sediments and its impact on water quality (Case study Chahnimeh 1 reservoir in Sistan) M.Sc. Thesis, University of Zabol.2012. (Persian)
7. Kabata-Pendias A, Mukherjee AB. Trace Elements from Soil to Human, Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York. 2007.
8. Kabata-Pendias A, Pendias H. Trace elements in soils and plants. Third edition, CRC Press LLC. 2001; 408p 9. Garavand M, Ghasemi H, Hafezi Moghddas N. Geochemical and Environmental Assessment of the Heavy Metals in the Soils Derived from the Gorgan Schists, Scientific Quarterly Journal, GEOSCIENCES. 2012; 22:35-46.
10. Ghrefat H A, Abu-Rukah Y, Rosen MA. Application of geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor for assessing metal contamination in the sediments of Kafrain Dam, Jordan. Springer Science, Environ Monit Assess. 2010; 178:95–109.
11. Cevik F, Göksu MZ, Derici OB, Fındık O. An assessment of metal pollution in surface sediments of Seyhan dam by using enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index and statistical analyses. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2008; 152:309–317.
12. Mor F, Soltani N, Keshavarzi B, Karimi M, Esmaelzade A. Environmental geochemistry, water, soil and sediments of copper deposit of Darrehzar (Kerman). Journal of Advanced Applied Geology. 2012; 1:29-37. (Persian)
13. Sarhangi A, Modaberi S, Mosaviharami SR, zibaee M. Contamination of potentially toxic elements in Latian Reservoir, with a view to the role of sediments in pollution control Journal of earth Science (geological engineering and environment). 2014; 94:139-146. (Persian)
14. Kargar AA, Sedghi H. Introduce and review of the most common methods for prediction of sedimentation in reservoirs (Case Study: Sefidrud dam). 14th National Civil Engineering Students Conference, 25 Auguest,Semnan University, Semnan, Iran. 2009. (Persian)
15. Anonymous. A detailed assessment of stability control of double-arch concrete of Kardeh dam. Khorasan Razavi Regional Water Authority, Department of Department of Conservation and Utilization. 2005;120 p. (Persian)
16. Ergin M, Saydam C, Basturk O, Erdem E, Yoruk R. Metal concentrations in surface sediments from the two coastal inlets (Golden Horn Estuary and Izmit Bay) of the northeastern Sea of Marmara. Chem. Geol. 1991; 91:269–285.
17. Hakanson L. An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control, a sedimentological approach. Water Res. 1980; 14:975-1001.
18. Abrahim GMS. Holocene sediments of Tamaki Estuary: Characterisation and impact of recent human activity on an urban estuary in Auckland, New Zealand, Ph.D. thesis, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. 2005; 361p.
19. Tomlinson DL, Wilson JG, Harris CR, Jeffrey DW. Problems in the assessment of heavy-metal levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index. Helgol. Meeresunters. 1980; 33:566-575.
20. Aikpokpodion PE, Lajide L, Aiyesanmi AF. Heavy metals contamination in Fungicide treated Cocoa plantations in Cross River State, Nigeria, American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci. 2010; 8(3):268-274.
21. Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC), Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand. In: Preda, M., Cox, M. E., (2002). Trace Metal Occurrence and Distribution in Sediments and Mangroves, Pumicestone Region, Southeast Quuensland, Austalia. Environ. Int. 1999; 28:433-449.
22. Praveena SM, Radojevic M, Abdullah MH, Aris AZ. Application Of Sediment Quality Guidelines In The Assessment Of Mangrove Surface Sediment In Mengkabong Lagoon, Sabah, Malaysia. 2008; 5:35-42.
23. Caeiro S, Costa MH, Ramos TB, Fernandes F, Silveira N, Coimbra A, Medeiros G, Painho M. Assessing Heavy Metal Contamination in Sado Estuary Sediment. An Index Analysis Approach. Ecol. Indicators. 2005; 5:151–169.
24. Mil-Homens M, Stevens RL, Abrantes F, Cato I. Heavy Metals Assessment for Surface Sediment from Three Areas of the Portuguese Continental Shelf. Cont. Shelf Res. 2006; 26:1184-1205.
25. Washington Department of Ecology. Sediment Management Standards. Chapter 173–204, Washington Administrative Code, amended December, 1995. In Long E. R., MacDonald, D. D., (1998). Recommended Uses of Empirically Derived, Sediment Quality Guidelines for Marine and Estuarine Ecosystems. HERA. 1995; 4:1019-1039.
26. Chen CW, Kao CM, Chen CF, Dong CD. Distribution and accumulation of heavy metals in the sediments of Kaohsinung Harbor. Taiwan, Chemosphere. 2007; 66:1431-1440.
27. Hejduk L, Banasik K. Variations in suspended sediment grain sizes in flood events of a small lowland river. IAHS-AISH publication. 2010; 337: 189-196.
Volume 4, Issue 1
March 2017
Pages 287-299
  • Receive Date: 29 November 2016
  • Revise Date: 11 January 2017
  • Accept Date: 19 January 2017
  • First Publish Date: 21 March 2017