Zoning concentration and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments of Mighan wetland

Document Type : Research Article


1 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Malayer University, Hamedan, Iran

2 M.Sc. Student of Environmental Pollution, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Malayer University, Hamedan, Iran


With the rise of population and the industry development, many pollutants had been released to environment. Besides, aquatic ecosystems are more vulnerable to chemicals with different combinations particularly heavy metals. In this study, the pollution of sediment around the basin of Mighan wetland with lead, zinc, and copper heavy metals was assessed by acid digestion and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, and Contamination Factor (CF) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI) were measured. Based on the results, comparisons of metal concentration with sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) were performed. Finally, zoning metals using Kernel Density Estimation showed that the southern and western parts of the wetlands because of industrial zones, agricultural lands wastewater, and industrial area have a high concentration of pollutants. Meanwhile, investigation of heavy metals represented a high concentration of copper metal relative to zinc and lead metals in the region. In the end, the requirement for contaminants controlling in the Mighan wetland is recommended.


Main Subjects

[1]. Mahdavi A, Omid MH, Ganjali MR. Experimental study of sorption and transport of Cadmium in the presence of bed load. J Environ Sci. 2009;34(48):1-12, [Persian].
[2]. Salomons W, Forstner U. Metals in the hydrocycle. Springer: Berlin; 1984.
[3]. Sobczynski T, Siepak J. Speciation of heavy metals in bottom sediments of lakes in the area of Wielkopolski National Park. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2001;10(6):463.
[4]. Eggleton J, Thomas KV. A review of factors affecting the release and bioavailability of contaminants during sediment disturbance events. Environment international. 2004;30(7):973-80.
[5]. Wang Y, Yang Z, Shen Z, Tang Z, Niu J, Gao F. Assessment of heavy metals in sediments from a typical catchment of the Yangtze River, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2011;172(1):407-17.
[6]. Luo W, Lu Y, Wang T, Hu W, Jiao W, Naile JE, Khim JS, Giesy JP. Ecological risk assessment of arsenic and metals in sediments of coastal areas of northern Bohai and Yellow Seas, China. Ambio. 2010;39(5-6):367-75.
[7]. Gismera MJ, Lacal J, da Silva P, Garcia R, Sevilla MT, Procopio JR. Study of metal fractionation in river sediments. A comparison between kinetic and sequential extraction procedures. Environmental Pollution. 2004;127(2):175-82.
[8]. Bazzi A. Determining the level of heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Gulf of Chabahar. ijhe. 2015; 8(1):45-56, [Persian].
[9]. Bahaor M, Naji A, Dehghani M. Anthropogenicimpacts on heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Zn and Fe) concentration in surface sediments of Shoor River Estuary, Bandar Abbas. Journal of Aquatic Ecology. 2015;5(2):38-48, [Persian].
[10]. Cheng Q, Wang R, Huang W, Wang W, Li X. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in the sediments from the Yellow River Wetland National Nature Reserve (the Sanmenxia section), China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2015;22(11):8586-93.
[11]. Li R, Li R, Chai M, Shen X, Xu H, Qiu G. Heavy metal contamination and ecological risk in Futian mangrove forest sediment in Shenzhen Bay, South China. Marine pollution bulletin. 2015;101(1):448-56.
[12]. Razaghi M, Shokri M R, Savari A, Pazooki J. Ecological risk assessment using heavy metals from surface sediments of Nayband Bay and Asaluyeh region (Northern Persian Gulf). J. Aqu. Eco.. 2013; 2 (3) :68-57[Persian].
[13]. Jamshidi ZA, Saeedi M. Metals pollution assessment of aurface aediment in Anzali wetland and their quality zonation. J. Environ. Stud. 2014;4(39):157-170[Persian].
[14]. Omidi M, Ghiabi P, Naebi M. Study the effect of climate change on drying of Mighan wetland. The third national conference on combating desertification and sustainable development of Iran desert wetland. 2012, [Persian].
[15]. Ansari A. Introducing of Meighan Wetland as International Wetland. Environ J. 2007;45, [Persian].
[16]. Dalman O, Demirak A, Balc─▒ A. Determination of heavy metals (Cd, Pb) and trace elements (Cu, Zn) in sediments and fish of the Southeastern Aegean Sea (Turkey) by atomic absorption spectrometry. Food Chemistry. 2006;95(1):157-62.
[17]. Ismail A. Heavy metal concentrations in sediments off Bintulu, Malaysia. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 1993;26(12):706-7.
[18]. Ismail A. Heavy metal concentrations in sediments off Bintulu, Malaysia. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 1993;26(12):706-7.
[19]. Hakanson L. An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control. A sedimentological approach. Water research. 1980;14(8):975-1001.
[20]. Turkian KK, Wedephol KH. Distribution of the elements in some major units of the earth crust. Geol Soc Am Bull. 1964;175-192.
[21]. Bai J, Cui B, Chen B, Zhang K, Deng W, Gao H, Xiao R. Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments from a typical plateau lake wetland, China. Ecological Modelling. 2011;222(2):301-6.
[22]. Sundaray SK, Nayak BB, Lin S, Bhatta D. Geochemical speciation and risk assessment of heavy metals in the river estuarine sediments—a case study: Mahanadi basin, India. Journal of hazardous materials. 2011;186(2):1837-46.
[23]. Smith SL, MacDonald DD, Keenleyside KA, Ingersoll CG, Field LJ. A preliminary evaluation of sediment quality assessment values for freshwater ecosystems. Journal of Great Lakes Research. 1996;22(3):624-38.
[24]. CCME. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. Protocol for the derivation of Canadian Sediment quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment; 1995.
[25]. MacDonald DD, Ingersoll CG, Berger TA. Development and evaluation of consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for freshwater ecosystems. Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology. 2000;39(1):20-31.
[26]. Macdonald DD, Carr RS, Calder FD, Long ER, Ingersoll CG. Development and evaluation of sediment quality guidelines for Florida coastal waters. Ecotoxicology. 1996;5(4):253-78.
[27]. MacDonald DD. Development and applications of sediment quality criteria for managing contaminated sediment in British Columbia. MacDonald Environmental Sciences Limited; 2003.
[28]. Duong T, Cowling A, Koch I, Wand MP. Feature significance for multivariate kernel density estimation. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis. 2008;52(9):4225-42.
[29]. Sabel CE, Kingham S, Nicholson A, Bartie P. Road traffic accident simulation modelling-a kernel estimation approach. InThe 17th Annual Colloquium of the Spatial Information Research Centre University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand 2005; 67-75.-
[30]. Adams WJ, Kimerle RA, Barnett Jr JW. Sediment quality and aquatic life assessment. Environmental science & technology. 1992;26(10):1864-75.
[31]. Bagheri H, Azimi A. The distribution of heavy metals in surface sediments of Sisangan coasts-the southern coast of Caspian sea. joc. 2015; 6 (21) :27-36, [Persian].
[32]. Kadhum SA, Ishak MY, Zulkifli SZ, binti Hashim R. Evaluation of the status and distributions of heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Langat River Basin in Selangor Malaysia. Marine pollution bulletin. 2015;101(1):391-6.
[33]. Liang J, Liu J, Yuan X, Zeng G, Lai X, Li X, Wu H, Yuan Y, Li F. Spatial and temporal variation of heavy metal risk and source in sediments of Dongting Lake wetland, mid-south China. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A. 2015;50(1):100-8.
Volume 4, Issue 2
June 2017
Pages 533-545
  • Receive Date: 30 December 2016
  • Revise Date: 05 February 2017
  • Accept Date: 15 March 2017
  • First Publish Date: 22 June 2017
  • Publish Date: 22 June 2017