Multi-criteria evaluation of water poverty index spatial variations in some watersheds of Ardabil Province

Document Type : Research Article


1 M.Sc in Watershed Management, Dept. of Natural Resources, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of MohagheghArdabili, Ardabil, Iran

2 Professor (Assistant) Department of Rangeland and Watershed Management, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili

3 AssociateProfessor, Dept. of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of MohagheghArdabili, Ardabil, Iran

4 Associate Professor, Dept. of Natural Resources, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran


Water resources scarcity is one of the biggest multidimensional issue of current century that could be the source of many positive and negative aspects of developments.The need for a comprehensive and multi-dimensional indicators to assess the condition and to predict the future status of surface water resources has become increasingly important. To this end, Water Poverty Index(WPI) is proposed to assess the availability of water resources.In this study, the amount of WPI, taking into account the resources, access, cost, environmental and socio-economic capacity criteria were calculated in Ardabil Province subwatersheds. Then, the different weighting approaches (equal weight to all criteria and one-at-a-time emphasizing on different criteria), were used to examine the WPI values and the sub-watersheds of the study area were ranked in terms of water poverty degree. The results showed that the values of water poverty index ranges from 22 to 65, acording to the different weighting approached in the study area.Considering equally weighted Water Poverty Index, the Shamsabad watershed had a higher water poverty index (29), while the Polesoltan watershed had the best condition with respect to water poverty condition compared to other watershed in the Ardabil Province.


Main Subjects

[1].Rezayan A, Rezayan AH. Future studies of water crisis in Iran based on processing scenario. Journal of Ecohydrology. 2016; 3(1). 1-17. [In Persian]
[2]. Shahedi M, Talebi F. Introducing some indices to evaluate the balance of water resources and sustainable development, Case study: Qareh-Qum basin in Iran. Journal of Water and Sustainable Development. 2014; 1(1). 73-79p. [In Persian]
[3].SullivanC.A, Meigh, J.R, Lawrence R. Application of the water poverty index at different scales: A cautionary Tale. International water resources association, 2006; 31(3), Page 412- 426.
[4]. Asiyabi-hir R, Mostafazadeh R, Raoof M, Esmali-ouri A. The importance of Water Poverty Index in water resources management. Extension and Development of Watershed Management. 2016; 3(11). [In Persian]
[5]. Brown A, Matlock MD. A review of water scarcity indices and methodologies. The Sustainability    Consortium, University of Arkansas. 2011;106pp.
[6]. Manandhar S, Pandey v, Kazama F. Application of water poverty index in Nepales context: A case study of Kali Gandaki River Basin (KGRB). Water Resources Management, 2012;26: 89- 107.
[7]. Shakya, B. Analysis and mapping water poverty of Indrawati Basin. World Wide Fund forNatureNepal Report, 2012;70 Pages.
[8]. Cho DL, Ogwang T. Water Poverty Index. In Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research, Springer Netherlands. 2014; 7003-7008.
[9]. Thakur JK, Neupane M, Mohanan AA. Water poverty in upper Bagmati River Basin in Nepal. Water Science. 2017. 16 pages.
[10]. Rajabi-Hashjin M, Arab DR. Water poverty index, an effective tools for assessment of world`s waterresources. 2nd Conference on WaterResources Management, Isfahan Technical University, Isfahan, Iran.2006; [In Persian]
[11]. Jaberzadeh, M. Estimation of water poverty index of Iran provinces. 7th National Conference and Expert Exhibition of Environmen Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. 2014; [In Persian]
[12]. Sabeti M, Jamali S, Ghiyasvand Gh. The use of water poverty index in local scale, case study: Karoun Basin. 10th International Congress on Civil Engineering. University of Tabriz. 2015; [In Persian]
[13]. Alessa L, Kliskey A, Lammers R, Ar, C, White D, Hinzman L, Busey R. The arctic water resource vulnerability index: an integrated assessment tool for community resilience and vulnerability with respect to freshwater. Environmental Management, 2008;42: 523- 541.
[14]. Hamoud, M.A, NourEl-Din M.M, Moursy F.I. Vulnerability assessment of water resources systems in the Eastern Nile Basin. Water Resources Management, 2009;23: 2697- 2725.
[15]. Babel MS, Wahid SM. Freshwater under threat: South Asia. Vulnerability assessment of freshwater resources to environmental change. United Nations Environment Programme and Asian InstituteofTechnology, Bangkok. 2009.
[16]. Ty TV, SunadaK, Ichikawa Y, OishiS. Evaluation of the state of water resources using modified water poverty index: a case study in the Srepok river basin, Vietnam-Cambodia. International Journal of River Basin Management, 2010;8(3-4): 305- 317.
[17]. Curtis V, Cairncross S, Yonli R.Review: domestic hygiene and diarrhea-pinpointing the problem. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 2000; 5(I): 22-32.
[18]. Cullis J, Oregan D. Targeting the water-poor through water poverty mapping. Water Policy, 2004;6: 397- 411.
[19]. World Health Organization/United Nations Childrens Fund (WHO/UNICEF). Joint monitoringprograme for water supply and sanitation. Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment Report.2000.
[20]. Howard G, Bartram J. Domestic water quantity, level and health. World Health Organization. 2003.
[21]. Han H, Zhao L. Rural income poverty in Western China is water poverty. China and World Economy, 2005;13(5): 76- 88.
[22]. Sullivan CA, Meigh JR, Giacomello AM. The water poverty index: development and application at the community scale. Natural Resources Forum, 2003;27: 189- 199.
[23]. Khorushi S, Mostafazadeh R, Esmali-Ouri A, Raoof M. Spatiotemporal Assessing the Hydrologic River Health Index Variations in Ardabil Province Watersheds. Journal of Ecohydrology. 2017; 4(2). 379-393. [In Persian]
[24]. Hasani M, Malekiyan A, Rahimi M, Samiei M, Khamoushi M. Study of efficiency of various base flow separation methods in arid and semi-arid rivers (Case study: Hablehroud basin). 2012; 2(2). 10-22 p. [In Persian]
[25]. Eckhardt, K. Acomparison of base flow indices which were calculated with seven different base flow separation methods. Journal of Hydrology, 2008;352, pp 168-173.
[26]. Pandey VP, Babel M.S, Shrestha S, Kazam, F. A framework to assess adaptive capacity of the water resources sestem in Nepalese river basins. Ecological Indicators, 2011;11(2): 480- 488.
[27]. Zeynali MJ, Hashemi SR. Compare Learning Function in Neural Networks for River Runoff Modeling, Journal of Ecohydrology, 2016;3(4). 659-667.[In persian]
[28]. Smakhtin, VU. Low flow hydrology: a review. Journal of Hydrology. 2001;240: 147- 186.
[29]. Appelgren B, Klohn W. Management of Water Scarcity: a focus on social capacities and options. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. 1999;24(4): 361- 373.
[30]. Brooks N, Adger WN, Kelly PM. The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation. Global Environmental Change-Human And Policy Dimensions, 2005;15: 151- 163.
[31]. Sadoddin A, Sheikh V, Mostafazadeh R and Halili M.Gh. Analysis of vegetation–based management scenarios using MCDM in the Ramian watershed, Golestan, Iran. International Journal of Plant Production. 2010; 4 (1): 51-62.
[32]. E-Costa CAB, Da Silva PA and Correia FN. Multicriteria Evaluation of Flood Control Measures: The Case of Ribeira do Livramento. Water Resources Management. 2004; 18(3): 263-283.
[33]. Sharifi A, Hervijnen MV and Toorn WVD. Spatial Decision Support Systems. International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth observation. (ITC). 153p.
Volume 4, Issue 4
January 2018
Pages 997-1009
  • Receive Date: 14 February 2017
  • Revise Date: 01 June 2017
  • Accept Date: 20 June 2017
  • First Publish Date: 22 December 2017
  • Publish Date: 22 December 2017