Assessment of hydrochemical characteristics and water quality of springs and wells in Zarivar Lake zone

Document Type : Research Article


Assistant Professor, Department of Natural Resources, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran


This study was done to investigate the physicochemical and hydrogeochemical properties, hydrochemical features, thermodynamic equilibrium, controlling mechanisms of 7 springs and 15 wells water chemistry in Zarivar Lake in Kurdistan province by the 15 water quality data variables from 1998 to 2013 and also compare the quality of water in springs and wells and their seasonal variation. Piper, Schoeller, Durov, Ludwig-Langelier, Wilcox and Gibbs diagrams, calculating different ionic ratios, saturation indices, Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests were used. Abundant ions are bicarbonate, calcium and magnesium, and the dissolution of carbonate rocks in the ground water recharge area caused to increase them. The ratio of Ca/Mg in all springs and wells duo to dissolution of silicate minerals are between 2 and 9. Total hardness is greater than 300 mg/l based on CaHCO3 or very hard water. Two main hydrochemical facies are Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 that are the result of changing water chemistry processes along the flow path and lithology of underlying geological formation. Ion ratios of Mg/Ca to Cl and Gibbs diagram showed the dominant mechanisms of interaction between rock and water, cation exchange and dissolution of carbonate and silicate minerals in determination of the chemical quality of springs and wells water.


Main Subjects

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Volume 4, Issue 4
January 2018
Pages 1049-1060
  • Receive Date: 10 March 2017
  • Revise Date: 20 June 2017
  • Accept Date: 06 June 2017
  • First Publish Date: 22 December 2017