Flood Hydrograph Simulation and Analysis of its Components with Landscape Metrics in Amoughin Watershed, Ardabil Province

Document Type : Research Article


1 M.Sc. student of Watershed Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili

2 Associate Professor, Department of Natural Resources, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili

3 Professor (Assistant) Department of Rangeland and Watershed Management, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili

4 Ph.D Student of Watershed ‎Management Science and Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University


The landscape metrics are used to quantify the spatial properties of landuse patches and classes as a useful tool in assessing effect of human activities on flooding processes. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of HEC-HMS model in flood simulaion of Amoughin watershed and exploring the relationships of landscape metrics and the flood components. The HEC-HMS model was runned with SCS-CN (loss module), SCS-Unit hydrograph (rainfall-runoff transformation) and Muskingum (routing). The model parameters were optimized using 6 events considering Nash-Sutcliffe objective function and three excluded events used during validation. The components of simulated hydrographs were defined by 25-year design rainfall. The landscape metrics were quantified using Fragstat and appropriate landscape metrics slected by PCA. The correlation and regression analysis were performed in R programming. The value of Nash-Sutcliffe criterion was 0.63 in validation which proves the accuracy of model in flood simulation. The results showed a positive relationship between Qp, runoff volume and base time with total area (TA) and MESH metrics. Relationship of Qp with TA, patch density (PD) and slope were evaluated as positive (p-value<0.01). While, the Qp had negative relationship with rangeland area. Also, the hydrograph Tp had a positive correlation with PD and river length.


Main Subjects

[1]. Raghunath H.M. Hydrology, Principles Analysis Design. New Age International (P) Limited, Publishers. 2006; 463.
[2]. Sampath DS, Weerakoon SB, and Herath S. HEC-HMS model for runoff simulation in a tropical catchment with intra-basin diversions–case study of the Deduru Oya river basin, Sri Lanka. ENGINEER. 2015; XLVIII(1): 1-9.
[3]. Jahangir MH, Sadeghi S, and Soleymani H.Numerical Evaluation of Maximum Flood Discharge Using SCS Method for Land Management on Watersheds of Kan Area. Ecohydrology. 2014; 1(1): 47-57. [Persian]
[4]. Halwatura D, and Najim MMM. Application of the HEC-HMS model for runoff simulation in a tropical catchment. Environmental Modelling and Software. 2013; 46: 155-162.
[5]. Walker JW. A Comparison of storm hydrographs from small urban watersheds with different landuse patterns in Baton Rouge. B.S., University of Southern Mississippi. 2002; 1-67.
[6]. Legesse Gebre S. Application of the HEC-HMS model for runoff simulation of upper Blue Nile river basin. Hydrology: Current Research. 2015; 6(2): 1-8.
[7]. Amiri E, and Roudbari Mousavi MM.Evaluation of IHACRES hydrological model for simulation of daily flow (case study Polrood and Shalmanrood rivers). Ecohydrology. 2017; 3(4): 533-543. [Persian]
[8]. USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service. Estimation of direct runoff from storm rainfall. Chapter 10. Part 630 Hydrology. National Engineering Handbook. 2004; 79p.
[9]. Scharffenberger WA, and Fleming MJ. Hydrologic modeling system HEC-HMS User’s. Manual, USACE. 2010; 1-306.
[10].            Xiao D, Zhao Y, Sun Z, and Zhang H. Study on the variation of landscape pattern in the west suburbs of Shenyang. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology. 1990; (1): 75-84.
[11].            Tlapakova L, Stejskalova D, Karasek P, and Podhrazka J. Landscape metrics as a tool for evaluation landscape structure (case study: Hustopece). European Countryside. 2013; 1: 52-70.
[12].            Apan AA, Raine SR, and Paterson MS. Mapping and Analysis of Changes in the Riparian Landscape Structure of the Lockyer Valley catchment, Queensland, Australia. Journal of Landscape and Urban Planning. 2002; 59(1): 43-57.
[13].            McGarigal K, Cushman SA, and Neel E.N. FRAGSTATS: Spatial pattern analysis program for categorical maps. Computer software program produced by the authors at the University of Massachusetts. 2002; 691-703.
[14].            McGarigal K, and Marks B.J. Spatial pattern analysis program for quantifying landscape structure. Gen.Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-351. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 1995; 1-122.
[15].            Botequila Leitao A, Jozeph M, Ahern J, and McGrigal K. Measuring landscapes: A Planner's Handbook. Island Press. 2006; 245.
[16].            Ali M, Jamalkhan Sh, Aslam I, and Khan Z. Simulation of the impacts of land-use change on surface runoff Lai nullah basin in Islamabad, Pakistan. Landscape and Urban Planning. 2011; 102(4): 271-279.
[17].            Van Nieuwenhuyse BHJ, Antoine M, Wyseure G, and Govers G. Pattern-process relationships in surface hydrology: hydrological connectivity expressed in landscape metrics. Hydrological Processes. 2011; 25: 3760-3773.
[18].            Simbay Kabba VT, and Li J. Analysis of land use and land cover change, and their ecological implications in Wuhan, China. Journal of Geography and Geology. 2011; (3)1: 104-118.
[19].            Giraldo MA. Spatial scale and land use fragmentation in monitoring water processes in theColombian Andes. Applied Geography. 2012; 34: 395-402.
[20].            Kang N, Sakamoto T, Imanishi J, Fukamachi K, Shibata S, and Morimoto Y. Characterizing the historical changes in land use and landscape spatial pattern on the Oguraike floodplain after the meiji period. Intercultural Understanding. 2013; 1: 11-16.
[21].            Mostafazadeh R, Sadoddin A, Bahremand A, Sheikh V, and Nazarnejad H.Assessing hydrological effects of Jafar-Abad watershed management project in Golestan province using HEC-HMS model. Journal of Watershed Engineering and Management. 2010; 2(2): 83-93. [Persian]
[22].            Razavizadeh S, Salajegheh A, Khalighi Sigaroudi Sh, and Jafari M.Effects of land use changes on flood characteristics using HEC-HMS model (Case study: Taleghan watershed). Range and Watershed Management. 2013; 66(3): 373-386. [Persian]
[23].            Vahabzadeh G, Navidifar Y, Habibnejad Rowshan M, and Abghari h. Investigating of the Effect of Land Use Changes on Daily River Discharge Using the HECHMS Model (Case study: Ajerloo Watershed, West Azerbaijan Province). Water and Soil Science. 2014; 24(4): 227-236. [Persian]
[24].            Talebi Amiri Sh, Azari Dehkord F, Sadeghi SH, and Soofbaf S.R. Study on Landscape Degradation in NekaWatershed Using Landscape Metrics. Environmental Sciences. 2009; 6(3): 133-144. [Persian]
[25].            Mirzayi M, Riyahi Bakhtiyari A, Salman Mahini A, and Gholamalifard M. Investigating the Land Cover Changes in Mazandaran Province Using Landscape Ecology’s Metrics Between 1984 - 2010. Applied Ecology. 2013; 2(4) :37-55. [Persian]
[26].            Arekhi S, and Fathizad H. Analyzing landscape degradation using landscape ecological metrics, remote sensing and GIS (Case study: Doiraj watershed, Ilam province). Range and Desert Research. 2014; 21(3): 466-481. [Persian]
[27].            Mostafazadeh R, Sadeghi SH, and Sadoddin A. Modeling the effect of land use type and spatial pattern on flow hydrograph variations. Iran-Watershed Management Science & Engineering. 2015; 9(31): 51-58. [Persian]
[28].            Nohegar A, Jabariyan Amiri B, And Afrakhte R.Land Use Analysis on Guilan Central District Using Landscape Ecology Approach. Geography and Territorial Spatial Arrangement. 2015; 5(15): 197-214. [Persian]
[29].            Rezazadeh MS, Ganjalikhani M, and Zounemat-Kermani M.omparing the performance of semi-distributed SWAT and lumped HEC-HMS hydrological models in simulating river discharge (Case study: Ab-Bakhsha Watershed). Ecohydrology. 2016; 2(4): 467-479. [Persian]
[30].            USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service. Urban hydrology for small watersheds. Technical Release 55. 1986; 164p.
[31].            Wanielista MP. Hydrology Water Quantity and Water Quality Control. University of Central Florida. 1997; 565p.
[32].            Knebl M.R, Yang Z.L, Hutchison K, and Maidment D.R. Regional scale flood modeling using NEXRAD rainfall, GIS, and HEC-HMS/RAS: a case study for the San Antonio River Basin Summer 2002 storm event. Journal of Environmental Management. 2005; 75: 325-336.
[33].            Hawkins R.H. Asymptotic determination of runoff curve number from data. Irrigation Drainage Engineering. 1993; 119: 334-345.
[34].            Chatterjee C, Jha M.ISH.R, Lohani AK, Rakesh Kumar M.ISH, and Singh R. Estimation of SCS curve number for a basin using rainfall-runoff data. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. 2002; 8(1): 40-49.
[35].            Mockus V. Estimation of direct runoff from storm rainfall. Chapter 10. National Engineering Handbook. 1964; 29p.
[36].            USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service. Flood Routing. Chapter 17. Part 630 Hydrology. National Engineering Handbook. 2014; 78p.
[37].            Kotsifakis K.G, Psomas A.G, Feloni E.G, and Baltas E.A. Rainfall - runoff modeling in an experimental watershed in Greece.International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology Rhodes, Greece. 2015; 1-5.
[38].            Alizadeh A. Principle of Applied Hydrology. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. 946p. [Persian]
[39].            USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service. Time of concentration. Chapter 15. Part 630 Hydrology. National Engineering Handbook. 2010; 29p.
[40].            Pilgrim DH, and Cordery I. Rainfall temporal patterns for design floods. Hydraulic Division. 1975; 101: 81-95.
[41].            Ghosh A, Munshi M, Areendran G, and Joshi PK. Pattern space analysis of landscape metrics for detecting changes in forests of Himalayan foothills. Asian Journal of Geoinformatics. 2012; (12)1: 1-12.
[42].            Zare Chahouki MA. Data analysis in Ntural resources research using SPSS software. Iranian Students Booking Agency. Tehran. 312p. [Persian]
[43].            Viglione A, Laio F, Claps P. A comparison of homogeneity tests for regional frequency analysis. Water Resources Research. 2007; 43(3): 1–10.
[44].            R Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL http://www.R-project.org/. 2014.
Volume 5, Issue 2
July 2018
Pages 357-372
  • Receive Date: 12 April 2017
  • Revise Date: 08 June 2017
  • Accept Date: 20 June 2017
  • First Publish Date: 22 June 2018
  • Publish Date: 22 June 2018