Utilize the Potential of the Water and Wastewater Industry for Distributed Generation of Clean Energy

Document Type : Research Article


1 MSc, Energy Systems Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tehran University, Tehran

2 Associate Professor of New Energy and Environment, New School of Science and Technology, University of Tehran, Tehran

3 Ph.D. student, Energy Systems Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tehran University, Tehran


The limitation of the use of fossil fuels, increasing environmental concerns caused by the excessive consumption of fossil fuels, growth in population and energy consumption, power losses, low efficiency of thermal power plants as the issues that improve energy efficiency and the use of renewable resources. Thus, the water and wastewater industry has the potential of renewable energy due to the availability of facilities such as water pipelines and underground reservoirs, which this issue not only provides the possibility of the construction of renewable power plants, but also it is a good alternative to fossil fuels for reasons such as the lack of renewable energy, low cost of production, exploitation of minimum water potential, less social and environmental problems in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, increase the number of distributed generation of small scale.The losses in power distribution networks as one of the key parameters in energy efficiency, the importance of water and wastewater industry as a great potential for the distributed generation shows. In this paper, the potential of the water and wastewater industry for the distributed generation of clean energy with an emphasis on the benefits of micro-hydropower systems in this industry has been investigated for Tehran.


[1]. Mohammadi, Y. Noorollahi, B. Mohammadi-Ivatloo, H. Yousefi, and S. Jalilinasrabady, "Optimal Scheduling of Energy Hubs in the Presence of Uncertainty-A Review," Journal of Energy Management and Technology, vol. 1, pp. 1-17, 06/01 2017.
[2]. M. Mehrpooya, M. Mohammadi, and E. Ahmadi, "Techno-economic-environmental study of hybrid power supply system: A case study in Iran," Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, vol. 25, pp. 1-10, 2018/02/01/ 2018.
[3].  A. Zervos And C. Lins.Ren21,Renewables 2016 Global Status Report.2016.
[4].           International Energy Agency. [Online]. Available: Http://Www.Iea.Org/. [Accessed: 10-Jan-2017].
[5].           Office Of Planning For Electricity And Energy, “Energy Balance Sheet 2014. The Ministry Of Energy. [Online]. Available: Http://Isn.Moe.Gov.Ir.
[6].           Punys P,Dumbrauskas A,Kvaraciejus A,Vyciene G. Tools For Small Hydropower Plant Resource Planning And Development: A Review Of Technology And Applications. Energies. 2011;4(9):1258–1277.
[7].  Tehran Province Water & Wastewater. [Online]. Available: Http://Www.Tpww.Ir/.
[8].           Gaius-Obaseki T. Hydropower Opportunities In The Water Industry. International Journal Of Environmental Sciences. 2010; 1(3):392–402.
[9].           Mcnabola A, Coughlan P, Corcoran , Power C, Williams A P, Harris I, Et Al. Energy Recovery In The Water Industry Using Micro-Hydropower: An Opportunity To Improve Sustainability.Water Policy. 2014;16(1):168–183.
[10].            Water and Wastewater Company of Iran. [Online]. Available:Http://Www.Nww.Ir/.
[11].            Ghorashi A H, Rahimi A. Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Status in Iran:  Art of Know-How and Technology-Gaps. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2011; 15(1):729–736.
[12].            Mazandarani A, Mahlia T M I. Chong W T, Moghavvemi M. A Review On The  Pattern of Electricity Generation and Emission in Iran from 1967 to 2008. Renew. Sustain.  Energy Rev.2010; 14(7): Pp. 1814–1829.
[13].            Mirzaghili M, Zamanian A A.Small Scale Hydroelectric Power Plant On Water Transmission Lines. In The 6th Scientific Conference On Renewable Energy.Clean And Efficient. 2014.
[14].            Noorollahi Y, Yousefi H, Taheri Bavil Oliaei M, mohammadi M. Identification of the catchment areas and potential survey of power generation from small hydropower plants in Kurdistan province.Iranian Journal of Eco Hydrology.2017;4(1):275-286.
[15].            Niko T, Alimohamadi M, Rezaei V.Potential of small hydroelectric power plants in Khuzestan province. Eighteenth International Electrical Conference.2003.
[16].            Corcoran L, Mcnabola A, Coughlan P. Energy Recovery Potential Of The Dublin Region Water Supply Network. In Water Congress On Water, Climate And Energy: Dublin, Ireland, 2012.
[17].            Da Silva B L A, Tofoli F L, Scartazzini L S. Case study: hydroelectric generation employing distribution network in Pato Branco, Brazil. in Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Power and Energy Systems.2011: 22–24.
[18].            Giugni M, Fontana N, Portolano D. Energy saving policy in water distribution networks. in International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ’09). Valencia, Spain, 2009.
[19].            Chiradeja P. Ramakumar R. An Approach To Qualify The Technical Benfits Of Distributed Generation.Iieee Tans. Energy Conv.2004;19(4):764-773.
[20].            Renewable Energy And Energy Efficiency Organization. [Online].available: Http://Www.Satba.Ir
[21].             Maher P, Smith N. Pico Hydro For Village Power. 2001.
[22].            Aggidis G A, Luchinskaya E, Rothschild R, Howard D C.The Costs Of Small-Scale Hydro Power Production: Impact On The Development Of Existing Potential. Renew. Energy. 2010;35(12): 2632–2638.
[23].            Karadirek I E, Kara S, Yilmaz G, Muhammetoglu A, Muhammetoglu H. Implementation Of Hydraulic Modelling For Water-Loss Reduction Through Pressure Management. Water Resour. Manag.2012. 1–14.
[24].            Bennett A.Energy Efficiency: Wastewater Treatment And Energy Production. Filtr. Sep. 2007; 44(10):16–19.
[25].            Price T, Probert D. Harnessing Hydropower: A Practical Guide. Appl. Energy. 1997;57(2):175–251.
[26].            Paish O.Small Hydro Power: Technology And Current Status. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev.2002;6(6):537–556.
[27].            Saket R K. Design, Development And Reliability Evaluation Of Micro Hydro Power Generation System Based On Municipal Waste Water. In Electric Power Conference, 2008. EPEC 2008. IEEE Canada. 2008; 1–8.
[28].            Wallace A R. Embedded Mini-Hydro Generation In The Water Supply Industry. In Opportunities And Advances In International Electric Power Generation, International Conference On (Conf. Publ. No. 419).1996:168–171.
[29].            Nazif S, Karamouz M, Tabesh M, Moridi A.Pressure Management Model For Urban Water Distribution Networks. Water Resour. Manag. 2010;24(3): 437–458.
[30].            Fontana M P , Giugni N. European Association For The Development Of Renewable Energies, Environment And Power Quality Energy Saving.In International Conference On Renewable Energies And Power Quality (ICREPQ’09), 2009.
Volume 5, Issue 4
January 2019
Pages 1147-1160
  • Receive Date: 31 January 2018
  • Revise Date: 05 June 2018
  • Accept Date: 16 September 2018
  • First Publish Date: 22 December 2018