Optimal Production Planning of Siahbisheh Pump Storage Power Plant for Water Resources Conservation

Document Type : Research Article


1 .

2 دانشگاه تهران

3 مدیر گروه علوم و فناوریهای محیطی، دانشکده علوم و فنون نوین دانشگاه تهران


This research is on planning Siah Bisheh pump storage power plant with the aim of maintaining water in the cycle by protecting water resources. The effect of planning Siah Bisheh pump storage power plant on the demand of the country’s electricity consumption has been investigated. Considering the technical, economical, and environmental benefits of renewable resources, the effect of the installation of solar and wind power plants (hybrid with pump storage power plant) on the performance of the Siah Bisheh power plant and national electricity charge has been investigated. The results indicate that the Siah Bisheh power plant's planning as a hybrid with both renewable and normal resources has the ability to reduce the annual gas load of 1 gigawatts. Also in the worst case scenario, the Siah Bisheh pumping storage power plant has the ability to reduce the mountly peak charge. During 4 hours, 3,481,920 cubic meters of water are transferred from the upstream dam to the downstream dam to produce power and in 5 hours this water is pumped to the upstream dam again. By installing wind, solar, and wind-solar power plants, respectively, 451.140 thousand tons, 328.929 thousand tons and 780.069 thousand tons reduces emissions of carbon dioxide equivalent. Also, the installation of wind resources for this study reduced the primary energy consumption by 158.658 thousand tonnes of oil equivalent. Installing solar resources also reduced 115.677 thousand tonnes of oil equivalents and simultaneous installation of solar and wind resources reduced the equivalent of 274.335 thousand tonnes of oil.


Main Subjects

1.        Al-hadhrami LM, Alam M. Pumped hydro energy storage system : A technological review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2015;44:586–98.
2.        Vennemann P, Gruber K, Haaheim J, Kunsch A. Pumped storage plants – Status and perspectives. Vol. 90. Essen: VGB power tech; 2011.
3.        Yousefi H, Mohammadi A, Noorollahi Y. Analyzing the Water Quality of Babaheydar Dam in Farsan using NSFWQI Analytical Method. Journal of Watershed Management Research. 2019;9(18):1–11[In Persian].
4.        V. Quaschning. Undestanding renewable energy systems. London: Routledge; 2016.
5.        Zhang S, Andrews-speed P, Perera P. The evolving policy regime for pumped storage hydroelectricity in China : A key support for low-carbon energy. Applied Energy. 2015;150(2):15–24.
6.        Ming Z, Kun Z, Daoxin L. Overall review of pumped-hydro energy storage in China : Status quo , operation mechanism and policy barriers. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2013;17:35–43.
7.        Sivakumar N, Das D, Padhy N. Economic analysis of Indian pumped storage schemes. Energy Conversion and Management. 2014;88:168–76.
8.        Sivakumar N, Das D, Padhy N, Senthil Kumar A, Bisoyi N. Status of pumped hydro-storage schemes and its future in India. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2013;19:208–13.
9.        Zhang D, Chen T, Li Y. Survey on pumped storage power stations in Japan. South Power Syst Technol. 2009;3:1–5.
10.      Punys P, Baublys R, Kasiulis E, Vaisvila A. Assessment of renewable electricity generation by pumped storage power plants in EU Member States. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2013;26:190–200.
11.      Geth F, Brijs T, Kathan J, Driesen J, Belmans R. An overview of large-scale stationary electricity storage plants in Europe : Current status and new developments, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2015;52:1212–27.
12.      Barbour E, Wilson I, Radcliffe J, Ding Y, Li Y. A review of pumped hydro energy storage development in signi fi cant international electricity markets. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2016;61:421–32.
13.      Dames M. An Assessment of Hydroelectric Pumped Storage An Assessment of Hydroelectric Pumped Storage. National Hydroelectric Power Resources Study, Vol. X. Virginia; 1981.
14.      Ardehali M. Power Plants and Generation of Electrical Energy. Tehran: Amirkabir University of Technology; 2012 [In Persian].
15.      Hunt J, Aurélio M, Freitas V, Olímpio A, Junior P. A review of seasonal pumped-storage combined with dams in cascade in Brazil. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2017;70(April 2016):385–98.
16.      Caralis G, Papantonis D, Zervos A. The role of pumped storage systems towards the large scale wind integration in the Greek power supply system. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2012;16(5):2558–65.
17.      Schmidt J, Cancella R, Junior A. The effect of windpower on long-term variability of combined hydro-wind resources: The case of Brazil. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2016;55:131–41.
18.      Foley A, Leahy P, Li K, McKeogh E, Morrison A. A long-term analysis of pumped hydro storage to firm wind power. Applied Energy. 2015;137:638–48.
19.      Kusakana K. Optimal scheduling for distributed hybrid system with pumped hydro storage. Energy Conversion and Management. 2016;111:253–60.
20.      Noorollahi Y, Itoi R, Yousefi H, Mohammadi M, Farhadi A. Modeling for diversifying electricity supply by maximizing renewable energy use in Ebino city southern Japan. Sustainable Cities and Society. 2017 Oct;34:371–84.
21.      Hamlehdar M, Yousefi H, Noorollahi Y, Fahimi R. Utilize the Potential of the Water and Wastewater Industry for Distributed Generation of Clean Energy. Iranian journal of Ecohydrology. 2018 Dec 22;5(4):1147–60 [In Persian].
22.      Alam M, Rehman S, Al-Hadhrami L, Meyer J. Extraction of the inherent nature of wind speed using wavelets and FFT. Energy for Sustainable Development. 2014;22:34–47.
23.      Rehman S, Al-Hadhrami L, Alam M. Pumped hydro energy storage system: A technological review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2015;44:586–98.
24.      Jangavar H, Noorollahi Y, Emami Meybodi A. Economic and Environmental Analysis of the Small Hydropower Plants Development. Iranian Journal of Ecohydrology. 2017 Dec 22;4(4):1255–68 [In Persian].
25.      Hino T, Lejeune A. 6.15 - Pumped Storage Hydropower Developments. In: Sayigh ABT-CRE, editor. Oxford: Elsevier; 2012. p. 405–34.
26.      IEA. World Energy Outlook 2017 [Internet]. International Energy Agency, Paris. 2017. Available from: https://www.iea.org/weo2017/
27.      IEA. World Energy Outlook 2018 [Internet]. International Energy Agency. Paris; 2018. Available from: https://www.iea.org/weo2018/
28.      Ridge O. 2017 Hydropower Market Report. 2018;(April). Available from: https://hydropower-qa.ornl.gov/docs/research/2017_Hydropower_Market_Report_summary_slide_deck.pdf
29.      International energy agency(IEA). Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES) by source Iran, Islamic Republic of 1990 - 2016 [Internet]. 2019. Available from: https://www.iea.org/statistics/?country=IRAN&year=2016&category=Energy supply&indicator=TPESbySource&mode=chart&dataTable=BALANCES
30.      Yazdani M, Sharifzadeh M, Kamrani K, Ghorbani M. Displacement-based numerical back analysis for estimation of rock mass parameters in Siah Bisheh powerhouse cavern using continuum and discontinuum approach. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 2012;28:41–8.
31.      Javadi M, Sharifzadeh M, Shahriar K. Uncertainty analysis of groundwater inflow into underground excavations by stochastic discontinuum method: Case study of Siah Bisheh pumped storage project, Iran. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 2016;51:424–38.
32.      Ghorbani M, Sharifzadeh M. Long term stability assessment of Siah Bisheh powerhouse cavern based on displacement back analysis method. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 2009;24(5):574–83.
33.      Katal F, Fazelpour F. Multi-criteria evaluation and priority analysis of different types of existing power plants in Iran: An optimized energy planning system. Renewable Energy. 2018;120:163–77.
34.      Pfenninger S, Staffell I. renewables.ninja [Internet]. Available from: https://www.renewables.ninja/, Accessed date, June 2019
35.      Yona A, Senjyu T, Funabashi T. Application of Recurrent Neural Network to Short-Term-Ahead Generating Power Forecasting for Photovoltaic System. In: 2007 IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting. IEEE; 2007. p. 1–6.
36.      Hung D, Mithulananthan N, Lee K. Optimal placement of dispatchable and nondispatchable renewable DG units in distribution networks for minimizing energy loss. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems. 2014 Feb;55:179–86.
37.      Tahani M, Yousefi H, Noorollahi Y, Fahimi R. Application of nature inspired optimization algorithms in optimum positioning of pump-as-turbines in water distribution networks. Neural Computing and Applications. :1–11.
38.      Yousefi H, Noorollahi Y, Tahani M, Fahimi R. Modification of pump as turbine as a soft pressure reduction systems (SPRS) for utilization in municipal water network. Energy Equipment and Systems. 2019 Mar 1;7(1):41–56.
39.      Benato A, Stoppato A. Pumped Thermal Electricity Storage: A technology overview. Thermal Science and Engineering Progress. 2018;6:301–15.
40.      Noorollahi Y, Yousefi H, Mahyar Taheri Bavil Oliaei M, Mohammadi M. Identification of the catchment areas and potential survey of power generation from small hydropower plants in Kurdistan province. Iranian journal of Ecohydrology. 2017 Mar 21;4(1):275–86 [In Persian].
41.      Breeze P. Chapter 2 - Pumped Storage Hydropower. In: Breeze PBT-PSEST, editor. Academic Press; 2018. pp. 13–22.
42.      ISNA. What is the most expensive time of a day to use electricity with time-of-use rates? KhabarOnline [Internet]. 2012 Oct 22; Available from: https://www.khabaronline.ir/news/252851 [In Persian], Accessed date, June 2019
43.      Ministry of Energy of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Energy balance sheet 2016 [Internet]. 2018. Available from: http://pep.moe.gov.ir/ [In Persian], Accessed date, June 2019
44.      Panel TI, Change C, Nations U, Programme E, Ipcc T, Report FA, et al. Climate Change 2007: Impact, Adaptation and Vulnerability [Internet]. 2007. Available from: https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/03/ar4_wg2_full_report.pdf, Accessed date, Jan. 2019
Volume 6, Issue 2
July 2019
Pages 533-552
  • Receive Date: 19 February 2019
  • Revise Date: 31 May 2019
  • Accept Date: 31 May 2019
  • First Publish Date: 22 June 2019
  • Publish Date: 22 June 2019