Feasibility study of Fluvial Acoustic Tomography System for flood monitoring and determination of the measurement accuracy, minimum and maximum measurement ranges

Document Type : Research Article


1 Assistant Professor, Water Research Institute

2 Assistant Professor, Water research Institute

3 Assistant Professor, Dean of Water Research Institute

4 Scientific Researcher, Water Research Institute

5 Sanjab Fanavari Khalije Fars Ltd, Shiraz, Iran


Flood monitoring and accurate measurement of flood wave are important in order to flood management. Acoustic tomography (AT) technique is one of the best technologies that is widely being used to monitor streamflow and flood wave measurement. In this method, the flow characteristics are measured by the reciprocal sound transmission of two AT systems where are deployed on both sides of the rivers. In this study, the calculation of minimum and maximum operational ranges, as well as the accuracy of velocity measurement is investigated for the river with different widths. The results illustrated that the minimum operational range with using 7th order M Sequence is 19 meters that would have the lowest velocity resolution of 20 cm/s. In this technique, the velocity resolution improves in proportion to the increment of the operational range. Therefore, the accuracy of 100 and 200-meter ranges are 3.5 and 2 cm/s, respectively. The maximum operational range using 12th order M Sequence is about 1955 meter with the precision of 0.2 cm/s. Due to the previous studies of using AT technique for the purpose of flood monitoring, as well as the result of this research that evaluated the capability of 30-kHz AT system, the proposed system can provide the real-time and accurate flood data in wide rivers. The real-time flood data may be used by water resources decision makers.


Main Subjects

[1]. Sunkpho J, Ootamakorn C. Real-time flood monitoring and warning system, Songklanakarin. J. Sci. Technol. 2011;33:227-235.
[2]. Sassi MG, Hoitink AJF, Vermeulen B, Hidayat. Discharge estimation from H-ADCP measurements in a tidal river subject to sidewall effects and a mobile bed. Water Resour. Res. 2011;47:1-14.
[3]. Chen YC. Flood discharge measurement of a mountain river-Nanshih River in Taiwan. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 2013;17:1951-1962.
[4]. Bahreinimotlagh M, Roozbahani R, Eftekhari M, Kardanmoghadam H, Kavousi A. Design, Manufacture and the Evaluation of Fluvial Acoustic Tomography System (FATS). J. Acoust. Soc. Iran. 2018;6:1-11 [In Persian].
[5]. Munk W, Wunsch C. Ocean Acoustic Tomography: A Scheme for Large Scale Monitoring. Deep Sea Res. Part A. Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 1979;26:123-161.
[6]. Howe BM, Worcester PF, Spindel RC, Ocean acoustic tomography: Mesoscale velocity. J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 1987;92:3785-3805.
[7]. Zheng H, Noriaki G, Noguchi H, Ito T, Yamaoka H, Tamura T, et al. Reciprocal Sound Transmission Experiment for Current Measurement in the Seto Inland Sea. , Japan, J. Oceanogr. 1997;53:117-127.
[8]. Chen M, Syamsudin F, Kaneko A, Gohda N, Howe BM, Mutsuda H, et al. Real-Time Offshore Coastal Acoustic Tomography Enabled With Mirror-Transpond Functionality. , IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 2018;1-11.
[9]. Huang CF, Taniguchi N, Chen YH, Liu JY. Estimating temperature and current using a pair of transceivers in a harbor environment. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 2016;140; EL137–EL142.
[10].       Kawanisi K, Razaz M, Kaneko A, Watanabe S. Long-term measurement of stream flow and salinity in a tidal river by the use of the fluvial acoustic tomography system. J. Hydrol. 2010;380:74-81.
[11].       Bahreinimotlagh M, Roozbahani R, Eftekhari M, Heydari AK, Abolhosseini S. Investigation of Current Status in Haftbarm Lake Using Acoustic Tomography Technology. J. Water Soil. 2019;33(1),23-35 [In Persian].
[12].       Kawanisi K, Kaneko A, Nigo S, Soltaniasl M. New acoustic system for continuous measurement of river discharge and water temperature. Water Sci. Eng. 2010;3:47-55.
[13].       Kawanisi, K, Razaz M, Ishikawa K, Yano J, Soltaniasl M. Continuous measurements of flow rate in a shallow gravel-bed river by a new acoustic system. Water Resour. Res. 2012;48:1-10.
[14].       BahreiniMotlagh M, Kawanisi K, Zhu X. Acoustic Investigations of Tidal Bores. J. Japan Soc. Civ. Eng. Ser. B1. 2015;71:139-144.
[15].       Al Sawaf MB, Kawanisi K, Kagami J, Bahreinimotlagh M, Danial MM. Scaling characteristics of mountainous river flow fluctuations determined using a shallow-water acoustic tomography system. Phys. A Stat. Mech. Its Appl. 2017;484:11-20.
[16].       Kawanisi K, Razaz M, Yano J, Ishikawa K. Continuous monitoring of a dam flush in a shallow river using two crossing ultrasonic transmission lines. Meas. Sci. Technol. 2013;24:1-10.
[17].       Bahreinimotlagh M, Kazemi khoshuei A, Roozbahani R, Eftekhari M, Kardan Moghadam H. The first Fluvial Acoustic Tomography System experience for river flow velocity monitoring in Iran. Iran. J. Soil Water Res. 2019 [In Persian].
[18].       Bahreinimotlagh M, Roozbahani R, Eftakhari M, Kardanmoghadam, H, Hasanli MA. Continuous Monitoring of Tidal Bores Using Acoustic Tomography Technique. J. Oceanogr 2019;9:57-64 [In Persian].
[19].       Bahreinimotlagh M, Kawanisi K, Danial MM, Al Sawaf MB, Kagami J. Application of shallow-water acoustic tomography to measure flow direction and river discharge. Flow Meas. Instrum. 2016;51:30-39.
[20].       Urick RJ. Principles of underwater sound. 3rd ed. Peninsula Pub, McGraw-Hill, New York. 1983.
[21].       Yamaguchi K, Lin J, Kaneko A, Yayamoto T, Gohda N, Nguyen HQ, et al. A continuous mapping of tidal current structures in the kanmon strait. J. Oceanogr. 2005;61:283-294.
[22].       Vračar MS, Mijić M. Ambient noise in large rivers (L). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 2011;130:1787-1791.
[23].       Kawanisi K, Bahreinimotlagh M, Razaz M. Energy Flux Measurement of Tidal Stream in a Strait Using Two Crossing Ultrasonic Transmission Lines. In: 36th World Congr. Int. Assoc. Hydro-Environment Eng. Res. (IAHR-APD 2015), Hague, Netherlands. 2015;1-4.
Volume 6, Issue 3
September 2019
Pages 585-592
  • Receive Date: 09 February 2019
  • Revise Date: 20 June 2019
  • Accept Date: 20 June 2019
  • First Publish Date: 23 September 2019