Evaluation and Comparison of the Anomaly of Fluoride in Rock, Soil and Water Bodies in the Northern Axis of Zangmar River, North of West Azarbaijan, Northwest of Iran

Document Type : Research Article


1 Ph.D. Student, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Urmia University, Iran

2 Professor in Faculty of Earth Sciences, Urmia University, Iran

3 Professor in Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Australia


Determination of fluoride distribution within the northern part of the Zangmar River is the main objective of this research. The bodies of water, soil and rocks of the area were sampled and analyzed to show the area with fluoride anomaly. For this purpose, 51 samples of water from wells, springs, qanats and surface waters and 101 samples from soil and rock were collected. The results of the study showed a different maximum value of fluoride in surface waters, wells, Springs, Qanats 5.22, 3.3, 2.54, 1.6 mg/L, respectively. Because of that, the most water resources which are being used for agriculture and drinking has been polluted by fluoride with concentrations in excess of the permissible level. Concentration of fluoride reduces from surface water to the springs, wells and qanats, respectively. This can be due to the effect of surface processes, such as surface rocks weathering which may release fluoride ion in water. According to result, metamorphic complexes, shale sediments, carbonate deposits of the upper Triassic and Colored Melanges with concentration less than 1 mg/L and Permian carbonates, sediments equivalent with Upper Red and Qom formation, basaltic complexes and modern sediments are associated with water bearing fluoride more than 1.5mg/L. Despite the important role of geological formations in increasing of fluoride in the waters, the fluoride transport from eastern of Turkey (near the Ararat volcano) by Sari Sou and Zangmar rivers is also considered as an important source.


Main Subjects

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Volume 6, Issue 4
January 2020
Pages 969-982
  • Receive Date: 10 June 2019
  • Revise Date: 22 September 2019
  • Accept Date: 22 September 2019
  • First Publish Date: 22 December 2019
  • Publish Date: 22 December 2019