Assessment of Water Saving Efficiency Index in Iran/Iraq through Virtual Water Trade with Turkey

Document Type : Research Article


1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Irrigation and Drainage, College of Aburaihan , University of Tehran, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Irrigation and Drainage, College of Aburaihan , University of Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Irrigation and Drainage, College of Aburaihan , University of Tehran, Iran

4 Professor, Faculity of Agriculture, Dicle University, Turkey


Importing of agricultural products can be one of the most effective strategies for saving water in Iran and Iraq. In this regard, the virtual water trade can be used to reduce the pressure on water resources in these countries. The Tigris and Euphrates in Turkey originate from the Diyarbakır and Elâzığ provinces. In this research, these provinces have been selected to investigate the virtual water trade between Turkey and Iran/ Iraq. The volume of virtual water trade has been studied by the flow of trade in goods from these provinces to Iran and Iraq over the 2015-2018 period. The water saving efficiency index showed that the water resources have been saved 3.2, 2.1, 3.1 and 2 in Iran and Iraq, respectively, by the imports of wheat and lentil from these provinces. On the other hand, the environmental problems have been created by the high water consumption for agriculture in this basin. Although the imports of products from Turkey to Iran and Iraq will cause saving water resources in these two countries, the commercial policies should be revised based on saving water in the whole of basin. The commercial policies and the effects of these crops’ trade on the environment can be improved by the approach presented in this paper. In addition, the approach presented here can actuate to the formation of commercial policies based on saving of water resources through the virtual exchange of water in the world.


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Volume 6, Issue 4
January 2020
Pages 1015-1027
  • Receive Date: 21 May 2019
  • Revise Date: 18 September 2019
  • Accept Date: 18 September 2019
  • First Publish Date: 22 December 2019