Investigating the Effects of Incoming Floods from Afghanistan on the Quantitative and Qualitative Changes of Groundwater Resources in the Sistan Plain

Document Type : Research Article

Authors

1 Ph.D Candidat in Watershed Management, Natural Resources Department, Faculty of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Gorgan, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department Soil Conservation and Water Management, Sistan Agriculture and edition Natural Resources Research Center, AREEO, Zabol, Iran

Abstract

The aim of this study was investigating the effects of incoming floods from Afghanistan on the quantitative and qualitative changes of groundwater resources in Sistan plain. For this purpose, first by determining the direction of flood flow in Sistan plain, 16 wells drilled near the flood flow were selected. Estimates of reservoir volume changes as well as comparison of rainfall in the region in the same period were made. In the following, using groundwater balance equations and single hydrograph equations before and after flood entry, quantitative changes in groundwater resources in Sistan region over a period of 4 years (1394-1398) were investigated. The qualitative changes in aquifer with sampling of observation wells during the balance and investigation of time changes in water quality parameters such as electrical conductivity (EC) and acidity (pH) was analyzed. The data shows that the floods increased the water level in the wells by an average of 0.39 meters the process of change has a high correlation (R² = 0.85) with the volume of floods in the region. Also, the hydrographic survey of the plain unit indicates significant changes in groundwater level before and after the flood in the area. As, during the 4-year period, the average water level is 2.16 meters higher than before Floods have increased. With the flooding amount of 20.66202 million cubic meters during the balance period, the reservoir volume has been naturally increased. Due to the low rainfall in the region, the nutrition of groundwater aquifers is affected by low rainfall. In examining the qualitative changes of groundwater, the results show a large decrease in the electrical conductivity index (EC) in observational wells. This change was significance difference at the level of 0.01 between the mean electrical conductivity before and after the flood. Also, groundwater acidity levels decreased with the arrival of floods, but were not statistically significant. According to the results obtained, Floods from Afghanistan with natural feeding of aquifers have improved the quantity and quality of groundwater in Sistan plain. Due to the water shortage crisis in the region, it can be considered an effective step in the development of water resources in Sistan region.

Keywords


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Volume 7, Issue 2
July 2020
Pages 463-479
  • Receive Date: 23 September 2019
  • Revise Date: 13 April 2020
  • Accept Date: 13 April 2020
  • First Publish Date: 21 June 2020