Spatio-temporal of Walnut Water Footprint Components and Virtual Water Trading in Iran

Document Type : Research Article


1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Water Sciences and Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Water Sciences and Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Natural Resources Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran


Many regions of Iran are increasingly faced with water crisis. Since agriculture is the main sector of water resources consumption with 85% of global surface and groundwater, it is necessary to reduce water consumption in this sector. Environmental protection, water resources and agricultural production are the main important goals of echo hydrology. Water footprint (WF) and virtual water trading (VW) concepts are recently used for fresh water resources management and echo hydrology engineering. WF and VW are used for sustainable management of water resources, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. These concepts have been used more in crop productions and less in fruit crops. The purpose of this study was to investigate the water footprint and water footprint in walnut production for duration of 2006-2016 in provincial and national scale of Iran. This study calculates water footprint components in walnut production for duration of 2006-2016 in provincial and nation scale of Iran. Result showed the average of water footprint is 6.42 m3/kg which the share of blue, green and grey water footprint are 90%, 3% and 7%, respectively. The highest and the lowest water footprint are in Yazd (14.11 m3/kg) and Mazandaran (1.94 m3/kg) provinces. Also, the total volume of water footprint is 1493 MCM per year that exported about 94% (1403 MMC per year) in the form of virtual water trade.


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Volume 7, Issue 3
October 2020
Pages 583-593
  • Receive Date: 29 March 2020
  • Revise Date: 02 June 2020
  • Accept Date: 02 June 2020
  • First Publish Date: 22 September 2020