Supplying Environmental Water of Gavkhoni Wetland by Improving Agricultural Water Demand Management

Document Type : Research Article


1 M.Sc. Graduate of Water Recourses Engineering, Department of Water Engineering, College of Abouraihan, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Professor, Department of Water Engineering, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran,

3 Associate professor of Irrigation Engineering department,, college of Aburaihan, University of Tehran

4 Associate Professor, Department of Water Engineering, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran

5 M.Sc. Graduate of Water Recourses Engineering, Department of Water Engineering, College of Abouraihan, Tehran University


Wetlands as bird habitats play an important crucial role in the socio-environmental system. Water restriction which resulted from high water losses in agriculture caused drying up wetlands in arid regions. Eco-environment water right could appropriately be improved by agricultural demand management in the region. The purpose of this study was to not only evaluate the efficiency of different scenarios for the management of agricultural water improvement including "modernization and upgrading agricultural water distribution systems", "improvement of irrigation systems performance in farms", "crop pattern optimization" and "reducing groundwater resource withdrawal" but also the combination of these scenarios to save the eco-environment water right for the wetlands. For this purpose, Zayandehroud watershed, consisting of six irrigation networks and Gavkhuni wetland was selected as the case study. The WEAP software used to model an integrated water management. Additionally, the efficiency of the scenarios evaluated and the reliability index for these scenarios obtained. The results displayed that the most flexible scenario was the implementation of all scenarios with flexibility index of 87.3% followed by “modernization and upgrading agricultural water distribution systems”, “crop pattern optimization” and “reducing groundwater resource withdrawal” with a flexibility index of 81.6% The least flexibility index belonged to the two scenarios of "improvement of irrigation systems performance in farms ", "crop pattern optimization" with a 2.2% and 2.6% value for the flexibility index. Therefore, the implementation of the combination of all management scenarios for agricultural water demand could be the most sustainable solution for the restoration of Gavkhuni wetland.


Main Subjects

[1]. Mitsch WJ, Gosselink JG. Wetlands. 5th ed. 2015.
[2]. FAO E. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome. 2017.
[3]. Shahdany SM, Firoozfar A, Maestre JM, Mallakpour I, Taghvaeian S, Karimi P. Operational performance improvements in irrigation canals to overcome groundwater overexploitation. Agricultural Water Management. 2018 May 31;204:234-46.
[4]. Fanish SA, Muthukrishnan P, Sekar SP. Effect of drip fertigation in intensive maize (Zea mays) based intercropping system. CROP RESEARCH. 2011;42(1to3):69-76.
[5]. Acharya G, Barbier E. Using Domestic Water Analysis to Value Groundwater Recharge in the Hadejia'Jama'are Floodplain, Northern Nigeria. American Journal of Agricultural Economics. 2002 May;84(2):415-26.
[6]. Candela L, von Igel W, Elorza FJ, Aronica G. Impact assessment of combined climate and management scenarios on groundwater resources and associated wetland (Majorca, Spain). Journal of hydrology. 2009 Oct 15;376(3-4):510-27.
[7]. Banihabib ME, Najafi Marghki S, Shabestari MH. Integrated water resources planning model to study and predict the supply of environmental water from the watersheds of Turkey, Iraq and Iran. Iranian Journal of Water Research. 2019. 32: 115-126 (Persian)
[8]. Vakil HA. Gavkhooni Swamp to Turn into an International Tourism Destination. Skyscrapercity: Tourism Infrastructure. Development and News. 2006.
[9]. Van Overloop PJ. Drainage control in water management of polders in the Netherlands. Irrigation and drainage systems. 2006 Feb 1;20(1):99-109.
[10].            Schuurmans J, Clemmens AJ, Dijkstra S, Hof A, Brouwer R. Modeling of irrigation and drainage canals for controller design. Journal of irrigation and drainage engineering. 1999 Dec;125(6):338-44.
[11].            Van Overloop PJ, Weijs S, Dijkstra S. Multiple model predictive control on a drainage canal system. Control Engineering Practice. 2008 May 1;16(5):531-40.
[12].            Yaltaqian khiabani M, Hashemi SM. Design of automatic control System for equitable distribution of water in dehydrated conditions and inflow fluctuations, case study of Roodasht irrigation network, Soil Conservation Research. 2018. 25(5). (Persian)
[13].            Safavi HR, Golmohammadi MH, Sandoval-Solis S. Scenario analysis for integrated water resources planning and management under uncertainty in the Zayandehrud river basin. Journal of hydrology. 2016 Aug 1;539:625-39.
[14].            Davijani MH, Banihabib ME, Anvar AN, Hashemi SR. Optimization model for the allocation of water resources based on the maximization of employment in the agriculture and industry sectors. Journal of Hydrology. 2016 Feb 1;533:430-8.
[15].            Banihabib ME, Zahraei A, Eslamian S. An integrated optimisation model of reservoir and irrigation system applying uniform deficit irrigation. International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology. 2015;5(4):372-85.
[16].            Karimi P, Qureshi AS, Bahramloo R, Molden D. Reducing carbon emissions through improved irrigation and groundwater management: A case study from Iran. Agricultural water management. 2012 May 15;108:52-60.
[17].            Sandoval-Solis S, McKinney DC, Loucks DP. Sustainability index for water resources planning and management. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management. 2011 Sep 1;137(5):381-90.
[18].            Hashimoto T, Stedinger JR, Loucks DP. Reliability, resiliency, and vulnerability criteria for water resource system performance evaluation. Water resources research. 1982 Feb 1;18(1):14-20.
[19].            Sarhadi A, Soltani S. Determination of water requirements of the Gavkhuni wetland, Iran: A hydrological approach. Journal of arid environments. 2013 Nov 1;98:27-40.
Volume 8, Issue 2
July 2021
Pages 345-355
  • Receive Date: 06 November 2020
  • Revise Date: 18 March 2021
  • Accept Date: 18 March 2021
  • First Publish Date: 18 March 2021
  • Publish Date: 22 June 2021