Measurement and evaluation of water pollution and coastal sediments in estuaries of Bandar Abbas

Document Type : Research Article


1 Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Tehran

2 Watershed Management Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Hormozgan University, Bandar Abbas

3 Environmental Hazards, Malayer University,, Malayer, Iran


one of the problems that threatens coastal ecology is the entry of urban wastewater into the sea by estuaries. Discharge of wastewater into the four estuaries of Bandar Abbas pollutes the coast of the Persian Gulf, which is a priority for the development of management strategies to reduce the risk of pollution. In order to achieve this approach, the present study measured the physicochemical parameters of water and heavy metals in the sediments of the four estuaries of Bandar Abbas, including Sooro, Goursoozan, Shilat and Nakhle Nakhoda estuaries during four seasons in 2019 and Evaluated by pollution indicators. The results showed that the concentrations of DO, BOD, COD, TSS, Cd, Zn, NO3, PO4, detergent and oils in the four estuaries of Bandar Abbas were higher than the environmental standard. The difference in temporal and spatial distribution of water quality pollutants was significant at the level of 95% and its maximum was in Goursoozan and in terms of time in summer, spring, autumn and winter, respectively. The average pattern of heavy metal concentration in the sediments was Zn> Cu> Pb> Cd which mean concentrations was 103.20, 52.55, 19.95 and 0.611 mg/kg, respectively. The maximum metals were in Goursoozan and the evaluation of metal in sediments with Igeo, CF, mdc and PLI indices showed that Cd, Cu and Pb in four estuaries of Bandar Abbas, in the category of moderate to severe pollution. High concentrations of heavy metals indicated the impact of human activities, including the discharge of wastewater into the estuary.


[1]. Wang P, Zhang L, Lin X, Yan J, Zhang P, Zhao B, Zhang C, Yu Y. Spatial distribution, control factors and sources of heavy metal in the surface sediments of Fudu Estuary waters, East Liaodong Bay, China. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 2020 Jul 1; 156:111279.
[2]. Zhang L, Qin YW, Ma YQ, Zhao Y, Shi Y. Spatial distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in the tidal reach and its adjacent sea estuary of Daliaohe area, China. Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue. 2014 Sep 1;35(9):3336-45.
[3]. Wang AJ, Bong CW, Xu YH, Hassan MH, Ye X, Bakar AF, Li YH, Lai ZK, Xu J, Loh KH. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surficial sediments from a tropical river-estuary-shelf system: A case study of Kelantan River, Malaysia. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 2017 Dec 15;125(1-2):492-500.
[4]. Dasar KN, AHMAD A, Mushrifah I, SHUHAIMI-OTHMAN MO. Water quality and heavy metal concentrations in sediment of Sungai Kelantan, Kelantan, Malaysia: a baseline study. Sains Malaysiana. 2009;38(4):435-42.
[5]. Hashim R, Song TH, Muslim NZ, Yen TP. Determination of heavy metal levels in fishes from the lower reach of the Kelantan River, Kelantan, Malaysia. Tropical life sciences research. 2014 Dec;25(2):21.
[6]. Xu G, Liu J, Pei S, Gao M, Kong X. Transport pathway and depocenter of anthropogenic heavy metals off the Shandong Peninsula, China. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 2016 Oct 5; 180:168-78.
[7]. ELTurk M, Abdullah R, Rozainah MZ, Bakar NK. Evaluation of heavy metals and environmental risk assessment in the Mangrove Forest of Kuala Selangor estuary, Malaysia. Marine pollution bulletin. 2018 Nov 1; 136:1-9.
[8]. Xie Z, Zhang H, Zhao X, Du Z, Xiang L, Wang W. Assessment of heavy metal contamination and wetland management in a newly created coastal natural reserve, China. Journal of Coastal Research. 2016 Mar;32(2):374-86.
[9]. Haghshenas A, Hatami-manesh M, Mirzaei M, Mir Sanjari M, Hossein Khezri P. Measurement and Evaluation of Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments of Pars Special Economic Energy Zone. ISMJ. 2017 Nov 10;20(5):448-69 [In Persian].
[10].            Li L, Jiang M, Liu Y, Shen X. Heavy metals inter-annual variability and distribution in the Yangtze River estuary sediment, China. Marine pollution bulletin. 2019 Apr 1; 141:514-20.
[11].            Liu R, Guo L, Men C, Wang Q, Miao Y, Shen Z. Spatial-temporal variation of heavy metals' sources in the surface sediments of the Yangtze River Estuary. Marine pollution bulletin. 2019 Jan 1; 138:526-33.
[12].            Kazi TG, Arain MB, Jamali MK, Jalbani N, Afridi HI, Sarfraz RA, Baig JA, Shah AQ. Assessment of water quality of polluted lake using multivariate statistical techniques: A case study. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety. 2009 Feb 1;72(2):301-9.
[13].            Kengnal P, Megeri MN, Giriyappanavar BS, Patil RR. Multivariate analysis for the water quality assessment in rural and urban vicinity of Krishna River (India). Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution. 2015 Jan 1;12(2):73-80.
[14].            Matta G, Kumar R, Kumar A, Kumar A. Effect of industrial effluent on ground water quality with special reference to DO, BOD and COD. Journal of Sustainable Environmental Research. 2014;3(2):183-6.
[15].            Polat N, Akkan T. Assessment of heavy metal and detergent pollution in Giresun coastal zone, Turkey. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin. 2016 Jan 1;25(8):2884-90.
[16].            Bhatnagar A, Kaczala F, Hogland W, Marques M, Paraskeva CA, Papadakis VG, Sillanpää M. Valorization of solid waste products from olive oil industry as potential adsorbents for water pollution control—a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2014 Jan 1;21(1):268-98.
[17].            Tanjung RH, Hamuna B. Assessment of water quality and pollution index in coastal waters of Mimika, Indonesia. Journal of Ecological Engineering. 2019;20(2).
[18].            Rajaee GH, Hassanpour M, Mehdinejad MH. Investigation of concentrations of heavy metals zinc, lead, chromium and cadmium in water and sediment of Gorgan Bay and estuary of Gorganrood river, Journal of Health System Research. 2012: 8(5): 748-756 [in Persian].
[19].            Muniz P, Marrero A, Brugnoli E, Kandratavicius N, Rodríguez M, Bueno C, Venturini N, Figueira RC. Heavy metals and as in surface sediments of the north coast of the Río de la Plata estuary: Spatial variations in pollution status and adverse biological risk. Regional Studies in Marine Science. 2019 Apr 1; 28:100625.
[20].            Adeleke B, Robertson-Andersson D, Moodley G. Comparative analysis of trace metal levels in the crab Dotilla fenestrata, sediments and water in Durban Bay harbour, Richards Bay harbour and Mlalazi estuary, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. Heliyon. 2020 Aug 1;6(8): e04725.
[21].            Sharifinia M, Taherizadeh M, Namin JI, Kamrani E. Ecological risk assessment of trace metals in the surface sediments of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman: Evidence from subtropical estuaries of the Iranian coastal waters. Chemosphere. 2018 Jan 1; 191:485-93.
[22].            ELTurk M, Abdullah R, Zakaria RM, Bakar NK. Heavy metal contamination in mangrove sediments in Klang estuary, Malaysia: Implication of risk assessment. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 2019 Oct 15; 226:106266.
[23].            Samanta S, Dalai TK. Massive production of heavy metals in the Ganga (Hooghly) River estuary, India: Global importance of solute-particle interaction and enhanced metal fluxes to the oceans. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 2018 May 1; 228:243-58.
[24].            Zhao Y, Xu M, Liu Q, Wang Z, Zhao L, Chen Y. Study of heavy metal pollution, ecological risk and source apportionment in the surface water and sediments of the Jiangsu coastal region, China: a case study of the Sheyang Estuary. Marine pollution bulletin. 2018 Dec 1; 137:601-9.
[25].            Wang X, Zhao L, Xu H, Zhang X. Spatial and seasonal characteristics of dissolved heavy metals in the surface seawater of the Yellow River Estuary, China. Marine pollution bulletin. 2018 Dec 1; 137:465-73.
[26].            Karthikeyan P, Marigoudar SR, Mohan D, Nagarjuna A, Sharma KV. Ecological risk from heavy metals in Ennore estuary, South East coast of India. Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology. 2020 Jan 1; 2:182-93.
[27].            Siddique MA, Rahman M, Rahman SM, Hassan MR, Fardous Z, Chowdhury MA, Hossain MB. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in the surficial sediments from the lower Meghna River estuary, Noakhali coast, Bangladesh. International Journal of Sediment Research. 2020 Nov 8.
[28].            Cordova MR. A preliminary study on heavy metal pollutants chrome (Cr), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in sediments and beach morning glory vegetation (Ipomoea pes-caprae) from Dasun Estuary, Rembang, Indonesia. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 2020 Nov 14:111819.
[29].            Truchet DM, Buzzi NS, Negro CL, Mora MC, Marcovecchio JE. Integrative assessment of the ecological risk of heavy metals in a South American estuary under human pressures. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2020 Oct 20; 208:111498.
[30].            Rahman SH, Khanam D, Adyel TM, Islam MS, Ahsan MA, Akbor MA. Assessment of heavy metal contamination of agricultural soil around Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ), Bangladesh: implication of seasonal variation and indices. Applied sciences. 2012 Sep;2(3):584-601.
[31].            Hakanson L. An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control. A sedimentological approach. Water research. 1980 Jan 1;14(8):975-1001.
[32].            Mohiuddin KM, Zakir HM, Otomo K, Sharmin S, Shikazono N. Geochemical distribution of trace metal pollutants in water and sediments of downstream of an urban river. International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology. 2010 Dec 1;7(1):17-28.
[33].            Nergis Y, Sharif M, Choudhry AF, Hussain A, Butt JA. Impact of industrial and sewage effluents on Karachi coastal water and sediment quality. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research. 2012;11(10):1443-54.
[34].            Rivett MO, Buss SR, Morgan P, Smith JW, Bemment CD. Nitrate attenuation in groundwater: a review of biogeochemical controlling processes. Water research. 2008 Oct 1;42(16):4215-32.
[35].            Ren LF, Chen R, Zhang X, Shao J, He Y. Phenol biodegradation and microbial community dynamics in extractive membrane bioreactor (EMBR) for phenol-laden saline wastewater. Bioresource technology. 2017 Nov 1; 244:1121-8.
[36].            Das P, Mandal SC, Bhagabati SK, Akhtar MS, Singh SK. Important live food organisms and their role in aquaculture. Frontiers in aquaculture. 2012;5(4):69-86.
[37].            Duarte B, Silva G, Costa JL, Medeiros JP, Azeda C, Sá E, Metelo I, Costa MJ, Caçador I. Heavy metal distribution and partitioning in the vicinity of the discharge areas of Lisbon
drainage basins (Tagus Estuary, Portugal). Journal of sea research. 2014 Oct 1; 93:101-11.
[38].            Al Hakim S, Jaber S, Eddine NZ, Baalbaki A, Ghauch A. Degradation of theophylline in a UV254/PS system: Matrix effect and application to a factory effluent. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2020 Jan 15; 380:122478.
[39].            Chunkao K, Nimpee C, Duangmal K. The King's initiatives using water hyacinth to remove heavy metals and plant nutrients from wastewater through Bueng Makkasan in Bangkok, Thailand. Ecological Engineering. 2012 Feb 1; 39:40-52.
[40].            Jafari N. Review of pollution sources and controls in Caspian Sea region. Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment. 2010 Feb 28;2(2):025-9.
[41].            Yakout AA, El-Sokkary RH, Shreadah MA, Hamid OG. Removal of Cd (II) and Pb (II) from wastewater by using triethylenetetramine functionalized grafted cellulose acetate-manganese dioxide composite. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2016 Sep 5; 148:406-14.
[42].            Khosravi M, Rakhshaee R. Biosorption of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn from the wastewater by treated Azolla filiculoides with H 2 O 2/MgCl 2. International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology. 2005 Dec 1;1(4):265-71.
[43].            Deycard VN, Schäfer J, Blanc G, Coynel A, Petit JC, Lanceleur L, Dutruch L, Bossy C, Ventura A. Contributions and potential impacts of seven priority substances (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn) to a major European Estuary (Gironde Estuary, France) from urban wastewater. Marine Chemistry. 2014 Dec 20; 167:123-34.
Volume 8, Issue 2
July 2021
Pages 411-429
  • Receive Date: 23 December 2020
  • Revise Date: 12 May 2021
  • Accept Date: 12 May 2021
  • First Publish Date: 21 June 2021