Study of habitat preference of Garra rufa in Dinorab River, Karkheh River basin

Document Type : Research Article


1 University of Tehran

2 Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.


Since the selected habitat indexes provide a description of the habitat characteristics of a species, this study was conducted to investigate the habitat preference of Garra rufa in Dinorab River (Kermanshah Province), a tributary of the Karkheh River basin. For this purpose, the habitat characteristics, including water depth, water velocity, river width, potamal area width, predominant type of bedrock cover, pH, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS) were measured and recorded in 18 sub-stations belonging to six main stations from downstream to upstream. The used and selected habitat ranges were obtained according to the availability of each habitat unit for each variable. The results showed that the most preferred water depth is 26-30 m with a suitability index (SI) of 0.779, river width of 6-7.2 m with SI of 0.7, the water velocity 0.24-0.31 m/s with SI of 0.38, bed structure with medium diameter of 5-5.5 cm with SI of 1, water temperature 18-19 °C with SI of 0.618, pH 7.32-7.44 with SI of 0.545, EC 290-310 with SI of 0.767, TDS in the range of 580-610 ppm with SI of 0.712 and potamal width 4.8-6 with SI of 0.634. The results showed that the Dinorab River is a moderately suitable habitat for Garra rufa.


  • Tharme RE. A global perspective on environmental flow assessment: emerging trends in the development and application of environmental flow methodologies for rivers. River. Res. Appl. 2003;19: 397-441.
  • Shahnazari D, Mosavi-Sabet H, Vatandoost S. Study on frequency, distribution and biodiversity of estuarine and freshwater fishes in Shalmanrud River (the southwestern Caspian Sea basin - Guilan Province). J. Mar. Biol. 2020;312(3): 79-92. [In Persian]
  • Tejerina-Garro FL, Maldonado M, Ibañez C, Pont D, Roset N, Oberdorff T. Effects of Natural and Anthropogenic Environmental Changes on Riverine Fish Assemblages: A Framework for Ecological Assessment of Rivers. Brazil Arch. Biol. Tec. 2005;4(1): 91-108. [In Persian]
  • Taylor CM, Holder TL, Fiorillo RA, Williams LR, Thomas RB. Warren Jr ML. Distribution, abundance, and diversity of stream fishes under variable environmental conditions. Canadian J. Fish. Aqua. Sci. 2006;63(1): 43-54.
  • Mouludi-Saleh A, Keivany Y, Jalali SAH. Biometry of Chub (Squalius namak Khaefi et al., 2016) in rivers of Namak Basin. Exp. AniM. Biol. 2018;7(1): 107-118. [In Persian]
  • Pishkahpour Z, Poorbagher H, Eagderi S. Effects of Ecological Conditions and Physical Variables of the Dinvarab River in the Kermanshah Province on the Habitat Suitability Index of Alburnus sellal Heckel (1843). J. Fish.2019;71(4): 317-328. [In Persian]


  • Hickey JT, Huff R, Dunn CN. Using habitat to quantify ecological effects of restoration and water management alternatives. Env. Model. Soft. 2015;70: 16-31.
  • Xue Y, Guan L, Tanaka K, Li Z, Chen Y, Ren Y. Evaluating effects of rescaling and weighting data on habitat suitability modeling. Fish. Res. 2017;188: 84-94.
  • Esmaeili HR, Sayyadzadeh G, Eagderi S, Abbasi K. Checklist of freshwater fishes of Iran. FishTaxa 2018;3: 1-95.
  • Zamani-Faradonbe M, Keivany Y, Dorafshan S, Zhang E. Two new species of Garra (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from western Iran. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters. 2021;1-22.
  • Keivany Y, Nasri M, Abbasi K, Abdoli A. Atlas of Inland Water Fishes of Iran. Iran Department of Environment Press, Tehran, Iran. 2016;218p. [In Persian]
  • Marcus MD, Hubert WA, Anderson, SH. Habitat suitability index models: lake trout (exclusive of the Great Lakes) (Vol. 82). 1984.
  • Rashleigh B, Barber C, Cyterski M, Johnston J, Parmar R, Mohamoud Y. Population models for stream fish response to habitat and hydrologic alteration: the CVI Watershed Tool. Environmental protection Agency, office of research & development, Athens, GA, USA. 2004.
  • Yousefi M, Jouladeh-Rodbar A, Ghanavi H. Protected areas coverage for suitable habitats of Garra persica, an endemic fish in Iranian inland waters. Conference on indigen Fish Conservation in Iranian Water Ecosystems. Karaj. Iran. 2018. [In Persian]
  • Makki T, Mostafavi H, Matkan A, Aghighi H. HModelling Climate-Change Impact on the Spatial Distribution of Garra Rufa (Heckel, 1843) (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Iran. J. Sci. Technol. Trans. Sci. 2021;45: 795–804.
  • Moradinasab A, Akbarzadeh A, Bahmani M, Kamrani E, Haghparast S. Investigation of Habitat Suitability of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus Borodin, 1897) in the southern of Caspian Sea basin using Multivariate Analyses. Ani. Env. 2018;10(4): 243-250. [In Persian]
  • Rostamian N, Eigderi S, Vatandoust S, Salar H. Habitat use and suitability index of Capoeta Capoeta gracilis, in the Kalarud River. Ani. Env. 2017;9(2): 141-146. [In Persian]
  • Zamani Faradonbe M, Eagderi S, Zarei N. Determination of habitat suitability index of Capoeta gracilis, Keyserling 1861 from Taleghan River. Fish. 2015;68(3): 409-419. [In Persian]
  • Eagderi S, Zamani-Faradonbeh M, Poorbagher H, Mouludi-Saleh A. Habitat preference of Sefid river loach, Oxynoemacheilus bergianus (Steindachner, 1897) in Jajroud River by comparing its preference in autumn and winter. J. Natur. Env. 2021;74(1): 1-11. [In Persian]
  • Esmaeili HR, Sayyadzadeh G, Eagderi S. Review of the genus Garra Hamilton, 1822 in Iran with description of a new species: a morpho-molecular approach (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Iranian J. Ichthyol. 2016;3(2): 82-121.
  • Taghiyan H, Sahapouri M, Mohammadi V, Alizadeh A. A Survey on Biodiversity, Abundance and Distribution of Dinorab River Fish. Breed. Aqua. Sci. J., 2017;3(7): 29-42. [In Persian]
  • Palialexis A, Georgakarakos S, Karakassis I, Lika K, Valavanis VD. Prediction of marine species distribution from presence–absence acoustic data: comparing the fitting efficiency and the predictive capacity of conventional and novel distribution models. Hydrobiologia 2011;670(1), 241.
  • Garg SK, Bhatnagar A, Kalla A, Johal MS. Experimental ichthyology. CBS Publishers & Distributors. 2002.
  • Hasanli AM. Diverse methods to water measurement (Hydrometry). Shiraz University publication. 1999;265pp. [In Persian]
  • Johnston NT, Slaney PA. Fish habitat assessment procedures. Watershed Restoration Project, Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks and Ministry of Forests. 1996.
  • Consulting J. Available: Accessed 2/3/2020.
  • Abbaszadeh MM, Vatandoust S, Manoocheri H, Mostafavi H, Hoseinifar SM. Study of habitat preference of Kura barbell (Barbus Cyri (Heckel, 1843)) in Zarem-rud River (tributary of Tajan River) in Mazandaran Province, Iran. J. Appl. Ichthyol. Res.2020;8(4): 15-23. [In Persian]
  • Walther BA, Larigauderie A, Loreau M. Diversitas: biodiversity science integrating research and policy for human well-being. In: Brauch HG, Spring UO, Mesjasz C (eds) Coping with global environmental change, disasters and security – threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2011;1235-1248.
  • Butchart SH, Walpole M, Collen B, Van Strien A, Scharlemann JP, Almond RE. Watson, R. Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines. Sci. 2010;328(5982): 1164-1168.
  • Ceballos G, Ehrlich PR. Mammal population losses and the extinction crisis. Sci. 2002;296: 904–907.
  • Voos KA, Lifton WS. Development of a bivariate depth and velocity suitability function for dolly varden (Salvelinus malma) Juveniles.
    In Proceedings of a workshop on the development and evaluation of habitat suitability criteria. Fort Collins, CO: US Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report 1988;88(11): 307-319).
  • Damalas D, Maravelias CD, Katsanevakis S, Karageorgis AP, Papaconstantinou C.. Seasonal abundance of non-commercial demersal fish in the eastern Mediterranean Sea in relation to hydrographic and sediment characteristics. Estuarine, Coast. Shelf Sci. 2010;89: 107-118.
Volume 8, Issue 4
January 2022
Pages 953-960
  • Receive Date: 02 July 2021
  • Revise Date: 11 December 2021
  • Accept Date: 11 December 2021
  • First Publish Date: 22 December 2021
  • Publish Date: 22 December 2021