Investigation of urban flooding in Ahvaz using the combination of spatial and hydrological analysis in GIS and HEC-RAS plugin

Document Type : Research Article


1 Master of Science in Remote Sensing and GIS,, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University

2 Department of Remote Sensing and GIS, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Head of Medical Geology Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran



The study of statistics and information on annual damages caused by floods in Iran indicates the extent of flood damage to natural resources. The use of geospatial information and remote sensing technologies can be very helpful in reducing these damages and better planning. In the present study, these technologies have been used for flood zoning in the Karun River in Ahvaz city. The zoning of the study area was done by combining hydraulic model and ArcGIS software through HEC-Geo RAS extension along 33 km of this river. In order to extract the border of the river banks in the urban area of Ahvaz, the supervised classification and Landsat satellite images were used. After introducing the geometric information to the model, the value of the Manning roughness coefficient is determined for different periods and then the return periods of 2, 50, and 100 years are introduced. The maximum speeds in the return periods were 2.6, 6.15, and 7.2 m/s, respectively, which are within the allowable flood speeds. This means that if the river banks are organized and fenced, scouring, erosion, and sedimentation will not occur and water will flow in the main canal without destruction. Preparation of flood warning systems based on precipitation with a high return period that leads to extreme floods, walling, beach construction, and river management in unstable and erodible sections of the river and improving the slope of the bed and canal dredging in the required sections, including the proposed executive solutions for organizing Karun River.


[1]. Rehman J, Sohaib O, Asif M, Pradhan B. Applying systems thinking to flood disaster management for a sustainable development. International journal of disaster risk reduction. 2019;36(1):101-102.
[2]. Shrestha BB, Okazumi T, Miyamoto M, Sawano H. Flood damage assessment in the P ampanga river basin of the P hilippines. Journal of Flood Risk Management. 2016;9(4):355-69.
[3]. Anees MT, Abdullah K, Nawawi MN, Ab Rahman NN, Piah AR, Zakaria NA, et al. Numerical modeling techniques for flood analysis. Journal of African Earth Sciences. 2016;124(1):478-86.
[4]. Esmaeili F, Hasoonizadeh H. Flood risk zoning using mathematical model and GIS (Case study: Konchanchem (cow) river in Ilam province. Second National Conference on Hydroelectric Dams and Power Plants. 2008 Apr, Tehran, Iran. [Persian]
[5]. Roknoddin Eftekhari A, Sadeghloo T, Ahmadabadi A, Sojasi Qidari H. Zoning of Rural Regions in Flood Hazard with Use of HEC-GeoRAS Model in GIS Sphere (Case study: flooded villages of Gorganrud Basin). Community Development (Rural and Urban Communities). 2010;1(1):157-182. [Persian]
[6]. Ghaffari G, Amini A. Flood Plain Management Using Geographic Information System (GIS) (Case Study of Ghezel Ozan River). Geographical Space. 2010;32(1):17-34. [Persian]
[7]. Kalantari Oskuei A, Sagafian B, Alesheikh AA. A GIS-based Solution for using Hec-HMS Modclark Hydrologic Model in Iran. Journal of Geospatial Information Technology. 2014;1(2):1-14. [Persian]
[8]. Yamani M, Turani M., Chazaghe S. Determination of the flooding zones by using HEC-RAS model (Case study: Upstream the Taleghan dam). Journal of Geography and Environmental Hazards. 2012;1(1):1-16. [Persian]
[9]. Sheikh Alishahi N, Jamali AA, Hassanzadeh Neftoi M. Flood zoning using hydraulic model of river analysis (Case study: Manshad catchment - Yazd province). Geographic space. 2016;16(53):77-96. [Persian]
[10]. Moharramzadeh Geliani N, Khorasanian H. Flood management by combining Hec-Ras hydraulic model and GIS (Case study of Kashfarud river) 16th Iran Hydraulic Conference, 2017, Ardabil, Iran. [Persian]
[11]. Mokhtari F, Honarbakhsh A, Soltani S. Flood and non-flood flow zoning in arid and semi-arid rivers using HEC-RAS and HEC-GEO RAS models. 16th Iran Hydraulic Conference, 2017, Ardabil, Iran. [Persian]
[12]. Rahmati O, Zeinivand H, Mosa Besharat M. Flood hazard zoning in Yasooj region, Iran, using GIS and multi-criteria decision analysis. Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk. 2016;7(3):1000-1017. [Persian]
[13]. Chen YH, Mossa J, Singh KK. Floodplain response to varied flows in a large coastal plain river. Geomorphology. 2020;354(1):107035.
[14]. Shrestha A, Bhattacharjee L, Baral S, Thakur B, Joshi N, Kalra A, et al. Understanding suitability of MIKE 21 and HEC-RAS for 2D floodplain modeling. In World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2020: Hydraulics, Waterways, and Water Distribution Systems Analysis 2020 May 14 (pp. 237-253). Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers.
[15]. Huţanu E, Mihu-Pintilie A, Urzica A, Paveluc LE, Stoleriu CC, Grozavu A. Using 1D HEC-RAS Modeling and LiDAR Data to Improve Flood Hazard Maps Accuracy: A Case Study from Jijia Floodplain (NE Romania). Water. 2020;12(6):1624.
[16]. Desalegn H, Mulu A. Mapping flood inundation areas using GIS and HEC-RAS model at Fetam River, Upper Abbay Basin, Ethiopia. Scientific African. 2021;12(1):e00834.
[17]. Munna GM, Alam MJ, Uddin MM, Islam N, Orthee AA, Hasan K. Runoff prediction of Surma basin by curve number (CN) method using ARC-GIS and HEC-RAS. Environmental and Sustainability Indicators. 2021;17(1):100129.
[18]. Brunner GW. Hec-ras (river analysis system). In North American Water and Environment Congress & Destructive Water 2002 (pp. 3782-3787). ASCE.
[19]. Baumann CA, Halaseh AA. Utilizing interfacing tools for GIS, HEC-GeoHMS, HEC-GeoRAS, and ArcHydro. In World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2011: Bearing Knowledge for Sustainability 2011 (pp. 1953-1962).
[20]. Zhang P, Li J, Yang X, Zhu H. Semi-automatic extraction of rock discontinuities from point clouds using the ISODATA clustering algorithm and deviation from mean elevation. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences. 2018;110(1):76-87.
[21]. De Doncker L, Troch P, Verhoeven R, Bal K, Meire P, Quintelier J. Determination of the Manning roughness coefficient influenced by vegetation in the river Aa and Biebrza river. Environmental fluid mechanics. 2009;9(5):549-67.
[22]. Kaya CM, Tayfur G, Gungor O. Predicting flood plain inundation for natural channels having no upstream gauged stations. Journal of Water and Climate Change. 2019;10(2):360-72.
[23]. Schäuble H, Marinoni O, Hinderer M. A GIS-based method to calculate flow accumulation by considering dams and their specific operation time. Computers & Geosciences. 2008;34(6):635-46.
[24]. Ponce VM, Hawkins RH. Runoff curve number: Has it reached maturity?. Journal of hydrologic engineering. 1996;1(1):11-9.
[25]. Rajabizadeh Y, Ayyoubzadeh S, Ghomeshi M. Flood Survey of Khuzestan Province in 97-98 and Providing Solutions for its Control and Management in the Future. Iranian journal of Ecohydrology, 2019;6(4):1069-1084. [Persian]
[26]. Hejazi A, Khodaie geshlag F, Khodaie geshlag L. Zoning the villages at flood risk in the Varkesh-Chai drainage basin by GIS and HEC - RAS software and HEC- GEO - RAS extension. Researches in Geographical Sciences 2019;19(53):137-155. [Persian]
[27]. Shafiei Motlagh, K., Ebadati, N. Flood Zoning and Hydraulic Behavior Simulation Using HEC RAS in (GIS) (Case Study: Maroon River - Southwestern Iran). Iranian journal of Ecohydrology, 2020;7(2):397-409. [Persian]
Volume 8, Issue 4
April 2022
Pages 989-1006
  • Receive Date: 04 August 2021
  • Revise Date: 12 January 2022
  • Accept Date: 12 January 2022
  • First Publish Date: 20 February 2022