Virtual water estimation and cost of virtual water for electricity generation in selected fossil and renewable power plants in the country

Document Type : Research Article

Authors

1 Environmental Management / Faculty of Marine Science and Technology / Islamic Azad University / Tehran/Iran

2 Department of Environmental Management / Faculty of Marine Science and Technology / Islamic Azad University / Tehr//Iran

Abstract

Currently in Iran, due to the availability of fossil resources, a huge amount of the country's electricity needs are met with the help of fossil power plants. But limited water resources will be one of the main challenges in generating electricity for our country in the future. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to calculate the amount of virtual water consumption in electricity generation in various fossil and renewable power plants and also the cost of virtual water used to generate electricity.
Water consumption in steam turbine, combined cycle and gas turbine is equal to 1.38, 0.29 and 0.025 liters per kilowatt-hour, respectively, and in photovoltaic and wind power plants is very low. Therefore, in order to develop and grow the country's power industry, choosing the type of power plant and especially the type of cooling system plays an important role in saving water consumption. Although the cost of virtual water is negligible due to the low cost of each unit of industrial raw water, drinking water in government centers and irrigation of green spaces, the high consumption of water in power plant processes to generate electricity as a water industry shows Shows that by consciously choosing the path of energy development, a significant amount of waste of water resources can be prevented and also the reduction of heat pollution of water resources (in single-pass cooling systems) can be prevented.

Keywords


  • Tsai Y, Chan Y, Ko F, Yang J. Integrated operation of renewable energy sources and water resources. Energy Conversion and Management, 2018;160, 439–454.
  • Delgado A. Water Footprint of Electric Power Generation: Modeling its use and analyzing options for a water-scarce future. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.2012;
  • Zhang Y, Hou S, Chen S, Long H, Liu J, Wang J. Tracking flows and network dynamics of virtual water in electricity transmission across China. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2021;137, 110475.
  • Graham N, Iyer G, Wise M, Hejazi M, Wild T. Future evolution of virtual water trading in the United States electricity sector. Environmental Research Letters, 2021;16(12), 124010.
  • YANG Y, LIN Z, HE J. Chosen Method of Optimum Cold Source Thermal-system Heater in Heat and Power Cogeneration System [J]. Proceedings of the CSEE, 2010;26, 1.
  • Loew A, Jaramillo P, Zhai H. Marginal costs of water savings from cooling system retrofits: a case study for Texas power plants. Environmental Research Letters, 2016;11(10), 104004.
  • OHagan J, Maulbetsch J. Water use for electricity generation. California Energy Commission. Public Interest Energy Research Google Scholar.2009
  • Chini C, Stillwell A. The changing virtual water trade network of the European electric grid. Applied Energy.2020; 260, 114151.
  • Zhang C, He G, Zhang Q, Liang S, Zipper S, Guo R, Zhao X, Zhong L, Wang J. The evolution of virtual water flows in China’s electricity transmission network and its driving forces. Journal of Cleaner Production.2020;242, 118336.
  • Chen X, Ma Z, Tan X, Zhao Y, Liu C, Tan F, Yang F. Analysis of water resource benefits due to power grid interconnections using the virtual water method. Global Energy Interconnection,2019; 2(3), 276–284.
  • Liao X, Zhao X, Hall J, Guan D. Categorising virtual water transfers through China’s electric power sector. Applied Energy.2018; 226, 252–260.
  • Fthenakis V, Kim H. Life-cycle uses of water in US electricity generation. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, 2010;14(7), 2039–2048.
  • Hosseinian M, nezam aslami R. A model for calculating the water footprint of cement production with the approach of reducing water consumption through energy efficiency (a case study in western Iran). Sharif Civil Engineering.1398;2 (3), 123–133.[ Persian]
  • Tahami Pour Zarandi M, Dashtban Faroji S, Javaherdehi S. The Assessment of Iran’s Industrial Products Trade with Other Countries from the Perspective of Virtual Water, Journal of Economics and Modeling.2017;8(30), pp. 143-187.[ Persian]
  • Tahamipour M. Virtual water, review of experiences and studies conducted in Iran and the world. Deputy of Infrastructure Research and Production Affairs, Research Center of the Islamic Consultative Assembly.1395;[ Persian]
  • Xin M, Wang J, Xing Z. Decline of virtual water inequality in China's inter-provincial trade: An environmental economic trade-off analysis. Science of The Total Environment.2022; 806, 150524.
  • Han M, Guo S, Chen H, Ji X, Li J. Local-scale systems input-output analysis of embodied water for the Beijing economy in 2007. Frontiers of Earth Science.2014; 8(3), 414–426. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11707-014-0430-2.
  • Aldaya M, Garrido A, Llamas M, Varela-Ortega C, Novo P, Casado R. Water footprint and virtual water trade in Spain. In Water policy in Spain.2009; pp. 69–80.

 

  • Antonelli M, Greco F. The Water We Eat. Springer.2015.
  • Wu X. Chen G. Energy and water nexus in power generation: The surprisingly high amount of industrial water use induced by solar power infrastructure in China. Applied Energy,2017; 195, 125–136.
  • Power plants. Comprehensive book on management, development and production of thermal power and related industries. Parent company specialized in thermal power generation.1396.
  • Cucchiella F, D’Adamo I. Issue on supply chain of renewable energy. Energy Conversion and Management, 2013;76, 774-780.‏
  • Moharram K, Abd-Elhady S, Kandil H, El-Sherif H. Influence of cleaning using water and surfactants on the performance of photovoltaic panels. Energy Conversion and Management.2013; 68, 266–272. [ Persian]
  • Amiri H, Karim M, Asadi F. Financial Appraisal of Meshkinshahr Geothermal Power Plant Assuming Feed in Tariff of Electricity. Iranian Journal of Economic Studies.2021.
  • Darabi H, Ma'rab Y. Assessing the effective factors in environmental resilience of using plant species for the development of urban green spaces in hot and dry areas (Case study: Qom city). Dry Canvas Scientific Journal.1399; 10 (2), 19–35.
  • Rostami Kia Y, modir Rahmati A. Investigation of 5-year growth of native and non-native poplar clones in the climatic conditions of Khalkhal city. Second National Conference on Natural Resources Protection.1394; [Persian]
  • Ghasemi R, Director Rahmati A, Asadi F.
    Quantitative characterization of 5 poplar clones of Turkish origin in Karaj region. Iranian Forest and Poplar Research.1390; 19 (4491–500). [Persian]
  • Lashkarbolouki E, Modirrahmati A, Rahmani R, Kahneh E, Mousavi Koopar S. 'Phenology and growth characteristics of seven clones of Populus deltoides in Astaneh Ashrafie, Guilan', Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research. 2010;18(4), pp. 538-527. [ Persian]
  • Ismaili R, Erfanian M. Determining the water needs of the dominant tree species in Mashhad green space, a step towards preserving the urban environment. National Conference.1392; [Persian]
  • Farmani A, Hassanzadeh A. Comparison of vegetative growth of poplar seedlings with observational irrigation of water requirement in modern irrigation methods. National Conference on Climate Change and its Impact on Agriculture and the Environment.1398; [Persian]
  • Ministry of Energy. Approved by the Ministry of Energy, water tariffs and sewage disposal services. Ministry of Power.P. H. Gleick, “Water and energy,” Annu. Rev. Energy Environ.1400; vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 267–299. [Persian].
  • Kumar S, Managi S, Jain R. CO2 mitigation policy for Indian thermal power sector: Potential gains from emission trading. Energy Economics.2020; 86, 104653.
  • Macknick J, Newmark R, Heath G, Hallett KC. Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies: a review of existing literature. Environmental Research Letters. 2012; Dec 20;7(4):045802.
Volume 8, Issue 4
January 2022
Pages 1147-1161
  • Receive Date: 01 November 2021
  • Revise Date: 21 December 2021
  • Accept Date: 31 December 2021
  • First Publish Date: 31 December 2021