Hydrogeochemistry investigation and geothermometry of hot spring in the Shoot-Maku geothermal system

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Civil Engineering-Water Resource Management, Urmia Branch, Islamic Azad University, Urmia, Iran

2 Department of Geology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran


The aim of this study is to investigate the hydrogeochemical characteristics of hot water springs of Khoy-Maku geothermal field, the effect of different rocks, the role of hydrothermal fluids on increasing the concentration of ions and elements in springs and estimating the reservoir equilibrium temperature. For this purpose, water samples were taken from hot and cold springs in september 2018. The results show that this water is confined and shallow and in them a water type is Na-HCO3. In springs Na and HCO3 are 736 and 2122 mg/l, respectively. Results of ion ratios, hydrogeochemical diagrams show that the high concentration of ions in the water are related to the effect of host rocks and ion exchange. Hot water springs have high Na, HCO3, and As and B are 1.47 and 0.7 mg/l, respectively. There are no evaporative rocks in the study area, therefore, the source of ions cannot be only attributed to the effect of rocks. Due to the presence of heat magmatic bodies in the depths, the high concentration of some elements, can be related to their separation from magmatic and hydrothermal systems. According Na-K-Mg diagram the thermal waters were immature waters. Therefore, the use of cation geothermometers to estimate the depth temperature of the geothermal reservoir in the region between 22 to 667 °C, can not be accurate enough. Based on silica geothermometers, mineral saturation index and enthalpy–silica mixing model, reservoir temperature was not very high and estimated in the range of 70 to 78°C.


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Volume 9, Issue 1
April 2022
Pages 47-61
  • Receive Date: 23 September 2021
  • Revise Date: 21 November 2021
  • Accept Date: 31 January 2022
  • First Publish Date: 21 March 2022
  • Publish Date: 21 March 2022