Document Type : Research Article
Department of Natural resources Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran
Department of Water Sciences and Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
Department of Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia
Agriculture has the largest share of total water consumption in the world. Among the cereals, the high consumption and demand of wheat has made it a strategic product. Due to the high level of wheat cultivation in the world, the amount of water used for its production can significantly affect the total water used in the agricultural sector and pose a serious threat to access to water resources. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the water shortage in wheat production in Iran, emphasizing the framework of the water footprint in the country during the statistical period of 2007-2018. The results of this study showed that the share of blue, green and gray water footprints is 71.76, 15.87 and 13.11% of the total water footprint in the production of Faryab wheat and 55 and 38.34% of the green water footprint respectively. And it forms gray in dry wheat in Iran. Also, the results showed that the average water stress index of wheat production in the country is 0.6, and the range of spatial changes of this index varies from 0.01 in Guilan to 3.01 in Ardebil at the North. The highest level of water self-sufficiency index (lowest dependency index) is related to North Khorasan, Khuzestan and Fars provinces with an average value of 70% and the lowest level of self-sufficiency index is related to Guilan province (2%), Mazandaran 9% and Tehran 16% (highest dependency index). The present study will be very helpful for making decisions about the sustainable management of water resources for wheat production in Iran.