Investigation of Aluminum, Iron, Manganese, Chromium and Cadmium Concentrations in Groundwater of Oshnavieh Plain

Document Type : Research Article



One of the most important issues in groundwater is its contamination by heavy metals. Because of chemical stability and poor degradation of heavy metals and their ability to accumulate in living organism’s bodies, they can become toxic. For this, 15 water samples were collected from the groundwater resources of the Oshnavieh Plain in September 2015 ,with evenly distributed, and then were analyzed by atomic absorption. Concentrations of aluminum, iron, manganese, cadmium and chromium and saturation indices for aluminum, iron and manganese were determined. The analysis results were compared with standard values of the World Health Organization using the Arc GIS software and PHREEQC software for calculating Saturation indices The results showed that in 33.33 percent of the samples only aluminum concentration is higher than the World Health organization's maximum acceptable concentration and in the rest of samples concentrations of the metals are below the standard concentration. Except aluminum, contaminations of the other heavy metals are not in risk boundary. But, because of the shallow groundwater depth and intensive agricultural activities in the plain, certainly in the long term it will be followed by many environmental risks. So, it is necessary that the groundwater resources of the aquifer should be considered for monitoring industrial wastewater, agricultural pesticides and irrigational returned water flow.


Main Subjects

]1. [Ghaemi P, Rostami Hozouri S, Ghaemi A. Determination of lead & copper in drinking water in Tehran. Journal of Environmental Studies. 2005; (36):27-32.]Persian[.
]2[. Hou D, He J, Lu C, Ren L, Fan Q, Wang J, et al. Distribution characteristics and potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zu, Cd) in water and sediments from Lake Dalinouer, China. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety. 2013;93:135-44.
]3[. Rahnama S, Khaledian M R, Shahnazari A, Forghani A. Spatial distribution of heavy metals pollution in groundwater of central Guilan The 2nd ed Iranian National Conference on Applied Research in Water Resources. Zanjan, Iran. 2011.]Persian[.
]4[. Mehrotra P and Mehrotra S. Pollution of Groundwater by Manganese in Hindon- Yamuna Doab (Noida area) District, Ghaziabad’, in Proceedings of the International Seminar on Applied Hydrogeochemistry, Annamalai University; 2000.p.106-112.
]5.[ Sobhanardakani S, Jamali M, Maanijou M. Evaluation of As, Zn, Cr and Mn concentrations in groundwater resources of Razan Plain and preparing the zoning map using GIS. Journal of Enviromental Science. 2014; 16(2):25-38.]Persian[.
]6[. Rajai G, Poorkhbaz A, Hsarymotla QS. Heavy metals health risk assessment of groundwater resources Aliabad katol Plain. Journal of North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences. 2012; 4(9):155-62.]Persian[.
]7[. Dehghani M, Abbasnejad A. Cadmium, Arsanic, Lead and Nitrate Pollution in the Groundwater of Anar Plain. Journal of Environmental Studies. 2011;36(56):28-30.]Persian[.
]8[. Alighader M, Hazraty S, Ghanbari M, Measuring the concentration of heavy metals in drinking water resources of Ardabil, Tenth National Congress on Environmental Health. Ardabil, Iran. 2007.]Persian.[
]9[. Homonick S C, McDonald A M, Hel K V, Dochartaigh B E, Ngwenya B T. Mangeneses concentration in Scottish groundwater. Sci. Total Environment. 2010;408(12):2467-2473.
]10[. Bhuiyan M A H, Islam M A, Dampare S B, Parvez L, Suzuki S. Evaluation of hazardous metal pollution in irrigation and drinking water systems in the vicinity of acoal mine area of northwestern Bangladesh. J Haz Mat. 2010;179(1-3):1065-77.
]11[. Wongsasuluk p, Chotpantarat S, Siriwong W, Robson M. Heavy metal contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from shallow groundwater wells in an agricultural area in ubon ratchathani province, Thailand. Journal of Environ Geochem Health. 2014;36:169-182.
]12[. Bhaskar C V, Kumar K, Nagendrappa G. Assessment of heavy metals in water samples of certain locations situated around Tumkur, Karnataka, India. Journal of Chemistry. 2010;7(2):349-52.
]13[. Elinge C, Itodo A, Peni I, Birnin-Yauri U, Mbongo A. Assessment of heavy metals concentrations in bore-hole waters in Aliero community of Kebbi State. Advances in applied science Research. 2011; 2 (4):279-282.
]14[. Momodu M A, Anyakora C A. Heavy metal contamination of ground water: The Suruler case study. Res JEnviron Earth Sci. 2010;2(1):39-43.
]15[. Geological Organization Country, Geological map of Naghadeh and Oshnavieh, Scale 1:100000. ]Persian[.
]16[. Regional Water Organization of West Azerbaijan, report assessment water resource Oshnavieh Plain. 2014.]Persian[.
]17[. Begum A, Ramaiah M, Khan HI, Veena K. Heavy metal Pollution and chemical profile of Cauvery River Water. E.J. Chem. 2009;6(1): 47-52.
]18[. Schumann K, Elsenhans B. Iron In: Merian E, Anke M, Ihnat M, Stoelller M(eds) Elements and their compounds in the environment, 2nd ed., wiley- VCH Verlag, Weinheim;2004.p.811- 824. In: Kabata-Pendias A, Mukherjee A B. Trace Elements from Soil to Human Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York; 2007.
]19[. Hem J D, Study and Interpretation of the chemical characteristics of Natural Water, thirded. US Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 2254, Washington, United States Government Printing Office; 1989.p.263.
]20[. Parkhurst D L, Appelo C A J. Users guide to PHREEQC: a computer program for speciation, batch-reaction, one-dimensional transport, and inverse geochemical modelling. US Geology Survey Water Resource Investigation Report; 1999.p.99-4259.
]21[. Greenberg A E. Clesceri LS, Eaton AD. Standard method for the examination of water and wastewater. 19thed Washington: APHA, Section 3111D & 3111E and 3113B; 1998.
]22[. Macioszczyk A, Dobrzynski D. Hydrogeochemia strefy aktywnej wymiany wod podziemnych. Wyd. Nauk.PWN, Warszawa; 2002.p.448.
]23[. Journal of Alzheimer Organization, Scotland, October; 2003.
]24[. World Health organization (WHO). Guidelines for Drinking water Quality. 4rd ed. Of groundwater in the Harzandat aquifer, Northwest of Iran, Environ Monit Assess. 2011;176(1-4):183-195.
]25[. Mettler S, Abdelmola M, Hoehn E, Schoeneberger R. Characteriziton of Iron and Mangeneses percipitates from an In Situ Groundwater Tretment plant. 2001;39: 921-930.
]26[. Gibbs R J. Mechanism controlling world water chemistry.Science. 1970;170:1088-1090.
]27[. Berkowitz B, Dror I, Yaron B. Contaminant Geochemistry: Interaction and Transport chemical elements to the ocean. Water Research. 2008;29(1): 265-296.
]28[. Reimann C, De Caritat P. Chemical elements in the environment. Springer- Verlag; 2008.
]29[. Sbba Rao N. Iron content in groundwater of Visakhapatnam environs, Andhra Pradesh, India. Enviromental Geology; 2006.p.49:413-429.
]30[. Gerber G B, Leonard A, Hantson P. Carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and teratogenicity of manganese compounds Critcal Reviews in Onocology/Hematology. 2002;42: 25-34.
]31[. Lemley A, Schwartz J J, Wagenet L. Fe and Mn in household drinking water. Water Treatment Notes, Fact Sheet 6, Cornell Cooperative Extension, New York State College of Human Ecology, Cornell, NY; 1999.p.7.
]32[. Mcbbride M B, , Environmental Chemistry of soils. 1 st Edition; Oxford University Press; 1994.
]33[. Wasserman G A, Liu X, Parvez F, Ahsan H, Levy D, Factor-Litvak P, et al. Water manganese exposure and children’s intellectual function in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2006;114:124-129.
]34[. Moore J W. Inorganic contaminants of surface water: Research and monitoring priorities, Spriger- Chemistry. 2005;24: 803-809.
]35[. Bousnoubra K H, Kherici N, Derradji E F. Behaviour of chromium VI in a multilayer aquifer in the industrial zone of Annaba, Algeria. Environmental Geology. 2009;57:1619-1624.
]36[. Kimbrough D‏ E, Cohen Y, Winer A M, Creelman L, Mabuni C. Acritical assessment of chromium in the environment,in Critical Reviews, Environmental Science and Technology. 1999;29:1–46.
]37[. Brigatti M F, Franchini G, Lugli C, Medici L, Poppi l, Turci E. Interaction between aqueos chromium solutions and layer silicates. APPL. Geochem. 2000;15:1307-1316.
]38[. Kumar R A, Riyazuddin p. Comprative study of analytical methods for determination of chromium in groundwater sample containing iron. Microchem, J. 2008;93:236-241.
]39[. Moor F, Hormozi A, Yaghoubpour A M, EStephen K. Mineral resources the Economics and environment. 1th ed. Tehran:Special Publications; 1996.p.320-325. ]Persian.[
]40[. Ahmadizadeh M. Industrial Toxicology of heavy metals. 2nd.Tehran: Publishing thousands; 1997.]Persian[
]41[. Karbassi A, Hajizadeh zaker N, Baghvand A, Bayat M. Concentration and origin of heavy elements in sediments in Urmia Shaharjay, The 3nd ed National Conference on Water and Wastewater With productivity approach, March. Tehran, Iran, 2009. ]Persian[.
Volume 3, Issue 2
June 2016
Pages 167-179
  • Receive Date: 21 July 2016
  • Revise Date: 30 October 2016
  • Accept Date: 21 September 2016
  • First Publish Date: 21 September 2016
  • Publish Date: 21 June 2016