Change in irrigation methods under the framework of PES policy tool to restore Lake Urmia

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Environmental Economics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 MSc. in Watershed Management Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Nour, Iran

3 Department of Watershed Management Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modarres University, Nour, Iran


Among well-known managerial practices to protect scarce biological resources, Payment for Ecosystem Services is an efficient and effective policy tool to manage such resources and its application is attracting a growing interest in the world. This is why, in addition to clarifying the role of such a policy tool to encourage farmers to modify their irrigation system to reduce pressures on water resources of Siminehroud Basin, a technical and economic assessment of its feasibility, has been done in this study. According to the results of this study, the idea of “encouraging farmers to change current irrigation practices in their agricultural land” seems to be widely acceptable to them. About 91.45% of land owners have stated their willingness to adopt pressurized irrigation systems. Meanwhile, from technical and economic point of view, realization of such an idea has benefit-cost ratio of 3.98 and it will lead to a decrease in annual demand of 283 MCM water from Siminehroud water resources. Therefore, extension of the plan of change in irrigation practices in all sub-basins of Lake Urmia will be highly efficient and it can considerably increase water supply needed for restoration measures.


Main Subjects

[1] Babran, S., Honarbakhsh, N., 2008. Critical Water Condition in Iran and the World, Rahbord. 16(48):193-212. (In Persian).
[2] Brander, L., Brouwera, R., Wagtendonk, A., 2013, Economic Valuation of Regulating Services Provided by Wetlands in Agricultural Landscapes: A Meta-Analysis. Ecological Engineering, vol 56: 89–96.
[3] Clements, T., John, A., Nielsen, K., An, D., Tan, S., Milner-Gulland, E.J., 2010, Payments for Biodiversity Conservation in the Context of Weak Institutions: Comparison of Three Programs From Cambodia. Ecological Economics, vol 69: 1283–1291.
[4] Costa, M.M., 2011, A participatory Framework for Conservation Payments. Land UsePolicy. Vol 28: 423–433.
[5] Daneshi, A., Vafakhah, M., Panahi, M., 2014. Economic Instruments for Management of Natural Resources and Environmental; Case Study: Ecosystem Services Payment (PES), Journal of water and Sustainable Development, vol 1(2): 7-14.
[6] Daneshi, A., Panahi, M., Vafakhah, M., 2016. Economic feasibility of promoting species of lower water requirements to improve water condition of Lake Urmia using PES schemes, Agricultural Economics and Development, vol 93 (24): 223-226.
[7] Dixon, B., Candade, N., 2008, Multispectral Land Use Classification Using Neural Networks and Support Vectormachines: One or the Other, or Both? International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol 29:1185–1206.
[8] Engel, S., Pagiola, S., Wunder, S., 2008, Designing Payments for Environmental Services in Theory and Practice: An Overview of the Issues. Ecological Economics, vol 65 (4): 663-674.
[9] Esmali, A., Abdollahi, KH., 2011. Watershed Management and Soil Conservation, Second Edition, Mohaghegh Ardabili University Press , 574p (In Perrsian).
[10] Farley, J., Costanza, R., 2010, Payments for Ecosystem Services: From Local to Global. Ecological Economics, vol 69: 2060–2068.
[11] Habibpour, K., Safari, R., 2012. Comprehensive Guide for SPSS Applications in the Field. Fifth ed, Louye Press, 861p (In Persian).
[12] Hecken, G.V., Bastiaensen, J., 2010, Payments for Ecosystem Services: Justified or Not ?A Political View. Environmental Science & Policy, vol 13 (8): 785–792.
[13] Hosseini., M.A, Solatifar, S., 2009. Technical Development of Sodium Sulfate Extraction From Urmia Lake Water. Thought Science-Applied Chemistry, vol 4(13):23-31 (In Persian).
[14] Jabarlouye Shabestari, B., 1999. Urmia lake (Iran nature tears). Naghsh Mehr Press, 117p (In Persian).
[15] Mahsafar, H., Maknoon, R., Saghafian, B., 2011. The Impact of Climate Change on Urmia Lake Water Level. Iran-Water Resources Research, vol 7(1): 47-58 (In Persian).
[16] Mohaghegh, M.H., 2002, Reducing on the Water Level of Urmia Lake, Future View and Recomondations. Urmia Lake and its Potentials to Development. Urmia University. 69 pp.
[17] Munoz Escobar, M., Hollaender, R., Weffer, C.P., 2013, Institutional Durability of Payments for Watershed Ecosystem Services: Lessons from Two Case Studies from Colombia and Germany. Ecosystem Services, vol 6: 46-53.
 [18] Muradian, R., Corbera, E., Pascual, U., Kosoy, N., May, P.H., 2010, Reconciling Theoryand Practice: An Alternative Conceptual Framework for Understanding Paymentsfor Environmental Services. Ecological Economic, vol 69:1202–1208.
 [19] Pagiola, S., Arcenas, A., Platais, G., 2005, Can Payments for Environmental Services Help Reduce poverty? An Exploration of the Issues and the Evidence to Date from Latin America.World Development, vol 33(2): 237–253.
[20] Rasouli, A.A., 2008. Principles of Applied Remote Sensing With Emphasis on Satellite Image Processing. Tabriz University Press, 777p (In Persian).
[21] Rezaei Zaman, M., Morid, S., Delavar, M., 2014. Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources on Simineh Roud Basin and its Inflows to Lake Urmia. Journal of Water and Soil, vol 27(6): 1247-1259 (In Persian).
[22] SEDAC., 2010, Gridded Population of the World: Future Estimates. Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC); collaboration with CIESIN, UN-FAO, CIAT. Accessed December 14, 2011 at:
[23] Smith, H.F., Sullivan, C.A., 2014, Ecosystem Services Within Agricultural Landscapes Farmers Perceptions. Ecological Economics, vol 98: 72–80.
[24] Soleimanipour, A., Bagheri, A., Vaseghi, E., 2011. Economic Evaluation of Irrigation Techniques and its Impact on the Yield of Potatoes in Isfahan, Agricultural Economics Research, 3(1): 143-164.
[25] Wendland, K.J., Honzak, M., Portela, R., Vitale, B., Rubinoff, S., Randrianarisoa, J., 2010, Targeting and Implementing Payments for Ecosystem Services: Opportunities for Bundling Biodiversity Conservation with Carbon and Water Services in Madagascar. Ecological Economics, vol 69 (11): 2093–210.
[26] Wunder, S., 2007, The Efficiency of Payments for Environmental Services in Tropical Conservation. Conservation Biology, vol 21 (1): 48–58.
Volume 3, Issue 2
June 2016
Pages 255-266
  • Receive Date: 21 April 2016
  • Revise Date: 09 October 2016
  • Accept Date: 11 September 2016
  • First Publish Date: 11 September 2016