Analysis of the role and position of organizational stakeholders in the executive management network of water resources in Garmsar plain

Document Type : Research Article


1 Ph.D. Student of Combat Desertification of Semnan University, Semnan, Iran

2 Associate Professor of Desert Studies College, Semnan University

3 Associate Professor, desert studies Faculty, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj


Organizational stakeholders network Analysis can be considered in integrated and participatory water resources management approaches. The aim of this research was to use the network analysis model for understanding the role and position of organizations related to the executive level of water resources management In Garmsar plain. Accordingly, 29 organizations were identified as the network boundaries. Based on the role and position in the network management of water resources, these were divided into three developmental, protective and intermediate groups. The coherence and sustainability of this network were studied based on network level indicators. According to the results of indicators at the network level, the link density of information exchange and cooperation is poor and does not benefit from a proper distribution among the subgroups. Based on the subgroup level indicators of the network, the density rate of the central actors is equal to 82.2%, while the density between the periphery actors accounts for 5.6%. The results also emphasize the need to reduce centralization within the network and to strengthen the relations between intermediate and peripheral actors to achieve the integrated and participatory management of water resources.


Main Subjects

  1. Madani K. Water management in Iran: what is causing the looming crisis? Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences. 2014;4(4):315-28.
  2. Ernstson H، Sörlin S، Elmqvist T. Social movements and ecosystem services—The role of social network structure in protecting and managing urban green areas in Stockholm. Ecology and Society. 2008;13(2):39.
  3. Gunderson LH، Holling C، Light SS. Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions: Columbia University Press; 1995.
  4. Holling CS، Meffe GK. Command and control and the pathology of natural resource management. Conservation biology. 1996;10(2):328-37.
  5. Berkes F، Folke C، Colding J. Linking social and ecological systems: management practices and social mechanisms for building resilience: Cambridge University Press; 2000.
  6. Pretty J، Ward H. Social capital and the environment. World development. 2001;29(2):209-27.
  7. Grimble R، Wellard K. Stakeholder methodologies in natural resource management: a review of principles، contexts، experiences and opportunities. Agricultural systems. 1997;55(2):173-93.
  8. Mushove P، Vogel C. Heads or tails? Stakeholder analysis as a tool for conservation area management. Global Environmental Change. 2005;15(3):184-98.
  9. Teisman G. Water governance. International journal of water governance. 2013;1(1-2):1-12.
  10. Bodin Ö، Prell C. Social networks and natural resource management: uncovering the social fabric of environmental governance: Cambridge University Press; 2011.
  11. Krott M، Hasanagas ND. Measuring bridges between sectors: Causative evaluation of cross-sectorality. Forest Policy and Economics. 2006;8(5):555-63.
  12. Klenk NL، Hickey GM، MacLellan JI، Gonzales R، Cardille J. Social network analysis: A useful tool for visualizing and evaluating forestry research. International Forestry Review. 2009;11(1):134-40.
  13. Bodin Ö، Crona BI. Management of natural resources at the community level: Exploring the role of social capital and leadership in a rural fishing community. World development. 2008;36(12):2763-79.
  14. Pereira CS، Soares AL. Improving the quality of collaboration requirements for information management through social networks analysis. International Journal of Information Management. 2007;27(2):86-103.
  15. Borgatti SP، Everett MG، Freeman LC. Ucinet for Windows: Software for social network analysis. 2002.
  16. Ghorbani M. The action plan of social-policy networks monitoring and assessment in local communities empowerment and integrated landscape management: Tehran University، Local Communities Empowerment and Natural Resource Participatory Management Resurch Institue press; 2016. 84 p. [persian]
  17. Berkowitz Stephen D. An Introduction to Structural Analysis: The Network Approach to Social Research. Toronto: Butterworth; 1982.
  18. Lienert J، Schnetzer F، Ingold K. Stakeholder analysis combined with social network analysis provides fine-grained insights into water infrastructure planning processes. Journal of environmental management. 2013;125:134-48.
  19. Prell C. Social network analysis: History، theory and methodology: Sage; 2011.
  20. Ghorbani M، Azarnivand H، Mehrabi A، Bastani S، Jafari M، Nayebi H. Social network analysis: A new approach in policy-making and planning of natural resources co-management. Journal of Natural Environment. 2013;65 (4):553-68. [persian]
  21. Bodin Ö، Crona B، Ernstson H. Social networks in natural resource management: what is there to learn from a structural perspective. Ecology and Society. 2006;11(2):r2.
  22. Woolcock M. Social capital and economic development: Toward a theoretical synthesis and policy framework. Theory and society. 1998;27(2):151-208.
  23. Zehtabian GR، Arjmandi R. Investigation on the causes of soil salinization in the Garmsar Plain، Iran. BIABAN. 2000;5(1):45-57.
  24. Azkia M. Poverty، vulnerability and development: a case study of garmsar rural district. olum-e ejtemai. 2003;20.
  25. Barhan T، Farhadi E. Investigation on awareness of assessment process in irrigation and derange systems Fourth workshop on of assessment process in irrigation and derange systems: Iranian National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage; 1383. [persian]
  26. Brugha R، Varvasovszky Z. Stakeholder analysis: a review. Health policy and planning. 2000;15(3):239-46.
  27. Friedman SR، Aral S. Social networks، risk-potential networks، health، and disease. Journal of Urban Health. 2001;78(3):411-8.
  28. Grimble R، Chan MK، editors. Stakeholder analysis for natural resource management in developing countries. Natural resources forum; 1995: Wiley Online Library.
  29. Hare M، Pahl-Wostl C. Stakeholder categorisation in participatory integrated assessment processes. Integrated Assessment. 2002;3(1):50-62.
  30. Prell C، Hubacek K، Reed M. Stakeholder analysis and social network analysis in natural resource management. Society and Natural Resources. 2009;22(6):501-18.
  31. Flick U. An introduction to qualitative research: Sage; 2009
Volume 4, Issue 4
January 2018
Pages 1011-1024
  • Receive Date: 28 February 2017
  • Revise Date: 30 April 2017
  • Accept Date: 17 May 2017
  • First Publish Date: 22 December 2017