Document Type : Research Article
Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Groundwater is the main component of sustainable development in Iran. Due to population growth, over-exploitation, reduced precipitation, and inappropriate cultivation practices, water storage has significantly declined. Therefore, it is imperative to model groundwater and predict the future state of the aquifer for effective management. In this study, we have modeled the qualitative and quantitative changes of the Kashan aquifer. Based on the hydrological and hydrogeological conditions of the Kashan plain aquifer, we developed a groundwater quantity and quality model (2009-2015) under stable and unstable conditions using the MODFLOW and SEAWAT models in the GMS software. The models were validated through statistical evaluation, demonstrating their accuracy in modeling. Once the models were validated, we assessed the status and quality of the aquifer for the next period (2016-2023) by considering various practical scenarios. Applying the current trend scenarios revealed a projected decrease in aquifer volume to 1.556 Mm3 and an average increase in salt density of quality wells to 160.33 ppm in the next period. Conversely, when simulating the scenario of shutting off wells for a month, the aquifer volume was projected to increase to 0.0147 Mm3, and the salt density of quality wells would decrease to an average of 42.27 ppm during that one-month period. These results highlight the model's capability to accurately recognize and predict observed and calculated outcomes. The expansion of saline water in the northeastern part of the aquifer has resulted in a decline in both quantity and quality in that region. Finally, implementing multiple management and scientific scenarios concurrently is crucial to prevent further deterioration of the quantitative and qualitative status of water resources in this region.