ارزیابی مدل‏های نفوذ آب در خاک‏های با بافت مختلف تحت مقادیر متفاوت محتوای رطوبت اولیه

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

2 دانش‌آموختۀ کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

3 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

چکیده

مدل‏های نفوذ آب کارکرد زیادی در پیش‏بینی رواناب در زمین‏های شیب‏دار دارند. دقت مدل‏ها در کنار نوع خاک به شرایط رطوبت اولیه وابسته است. پژوهش حاضر در سه نوع بافت خاک (لوم، لوم‏ شنی و لوم ‏رس‏شنی) با چهار سطح رطوبت اولیه هر یک در سه تکرار در دامنه‏ای با شیب 7 درصد در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی اجرا شد. در مجموع، 36 کرت آزمایشی شامل 12 کرت برای هر خاک به ابعاد 80 سانتی‏متر× 60 سانتی‏متر در دامنه احداث شد. ابتدا خاک داخل کرت‏ها با آب آبیاری اشباع شده و در فواصل زمانی یک، چهار، هفت و 10 روز پس از اشباع‏سازی، رطوبت جرمی خاک‏ها تعیین شد. سرعت نفوذ آب به خاک به روش استوانۀ مضاعف در هر کرت اندازه‏گیری شد. مدل‏های کوستیاکوف، کوستیاکوف- لوئیس، هورتون، حفاظت خاک آمریکا، گرین آمپت و فیلیپ بر داده‏های نفوذ برازش و دقت آنها با برخی شاخص‏های آماری ارزیابی شد. نتایج نشان داد سرعت نفوذ آب در خاک‏ها با تغییر مقدار رطوبت اولیه به‌شدت تغییر می‏یابد. این تغییرات در خاک لوم ‏شنی و در مراحل اولیۀ نفوذ بارزتر بود. تغییرات زیادی از نظر سرعت نفوذ نهایی در خاک‏ها تحت تأثیر رطوبت اولیه رخ نداد و کمترین مقدار در خاک لوم‏ رس‏شنی (90/1 میلی‏متر بر ساعت) و بیشترین مقدار در خاک لوم (75/3 میلی‏متر بر ساعت) مشاهده شد. هورتون مناسب‏ترین مدل توصیف‏کنندۀ تغییرات زمانی نفوذ آب به خاک در سطوح مختلف رطوبتی بود، به طوری که بیشترین ضریب تبیین (99/0=R2) و کمترین مقدار ریشۀ میانگین مربعات خطا (RMSE= 0.23 mm.h-1) و شاخص آکاییک (27/0= AIC) را نشان داد. مدل گرین- آمپت به شرایط متفاوت رطوبتی خاک حساس بود و ضعیف‏ترین برازش را بر داده‏های نفوذ نشان داد. از این رو، می‏توان از مدل هورتون برای بررسی تغییرات نفوذ آب به خاک تحت شرایط مختلف رطوبتی استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of water infiltration models in soil textures under different initial water contents

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Reza Vaezi 1
  • Mehran Behtari 2
  • Majid Foroumadi 3
1 Professor, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan
2 Former M.Sc. Student of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan
3 Ph.D. Student of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan
چکیده [English]

Water infiltration models are very helpful in predicting runoff in the slopes. The accuracy of the models depends on soil types and initial moisture conditions. This study was conducted to three soil textures (loam, sandy loam and sandy clay loam) with four initial soil moisture levels as a completely randomized design. The infiltration rate models consist of the Kostiakov, Kostiakov-Lewis, Horton, Soil Conservation Service of America, Green-Ampt and Philip were fitted to data and their accuracy were assessed using some statistical parameters. Results showed that soil infiltration rate is affected strongly by initial water content in the soils. The highest variation of infiltration rate was found in sandy loam especially in initial times of infiltration. There were obvious variations in final infiltration rate under different initial water content in the soils and the lowest and the highest variation was observed in sandy clay loam and loam , respectively. The Horton’s model was the best equation describing temporal variation of water infiltration in the sols under different initial water contents, so that itappeared the highest determination coefficient and the lowest values of the root mean squares error and the Akaike index. The Green- Ampt’s model appeared the most sensitivity to initial water content and was weakly fitted with observed data. Therefore, the Horton’s model can be used for predicting infiltration rate under different initial water contents in the soils.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Double ring
  • Temporal variation
  • Slope land
  • Soil moisture
  • Infiltration rate
 

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