مدیریت ‏بوم‏سازگان‏های آبی و احیای رودخانه‏ها با پیاده‏سازی رژیم جریان زیست‏محیطی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد مهندسی منابع آب، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

2 دانشیار گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکدۀ مهندسی آب و خاک، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

3 استادیار گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکدۀ مهندسی آب و خاک، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

چکیده

‌مدیریت بوم‏سازگان‏های رودخانه‏ای و جریان آب لازم برای تداوم حیات و پایداری اکولوژیکی سیستم‏های وابسته به رودخانه، نیازمند به رسمیت شناختن جریان‏های زیست‏محیطی در سیاست‏ها و تصمیم‌های طرح‏های توسعۀ منابع آب و گنجاندن آن در برنامه‏های مدیریت حوضۀ آبخیز است. به این منظور، در پژوهش حاضر کاربرد روش‏های هیدرولوژیکی (تنانت، تسمن، منحنی تداوم جریان، اسمختین، آرکانزاس، انتقال منحنی تداوم جریان و مدل ذخیرۀ رومیزی) و مدل اکوهیدرولیکی شبیه‏سازی مطلوبیت زیستگاه (سیفا) در ارزیابی جریان‏های زیست‏محیطی رودخانۀ قره‏سو واقع در استان گلستان در بازۀ ایستگاه‏های هیدرومتری غازمحله تا سیاه‏آب به‌ترتیب با دبی متوسط سالانه 26/0 و 92/1 مترمکعب بر ثانیه به منظور احیای زیستگاه، تجدید حیات طبیعی و حفظ تنوع زیستی تجزیه و تحلیل شدند. بررسی تأمین جریان مطلوب زیست‏بوم با مطالعات و اندازه‏گیری‏های میدانی روی مشخصات هیدرولیکی و کیفی رودخانه برای شناسایی شرایط مطلوب زیستگاه سیاه‏ماهی C.capoeta gracilisنشان داد حداکثر و حداقل رژیم جریان مورد نیاز برای حفظ اکوسیستم رودخانۀ قره‏سو با توجه به نیازهای اکولوژیکی در ماه‏های اردیبهشت و شهریور به‌ترتیب معادل 11/3 و 48/0 مترمکعب بر ثانیه، با میانگین سالانه 6/1 مترمکعب بر ثانیه (معادل 83 درصد جریان طبیعی رودخانه) است. نتایج پژوهش نشان می‏دهد استفاده از مقادیر به‌دست‌‌آمده از روش‏های سادۀ هیدرولوژیکی تنانت، اسمختین و منحنی تداوم جریان در برنامه‏ریزی منابع آب این رودخانه تهدیدهای زیست‏محیطی به دنبال خواهد داشت و در مقابل، مدل اکوهیدرولیکی سیفا می‏تواند یک ایدۀ کلی از مطلوبیت زیستگاه را در بازه‏های مختلف رودخانه نسبت به تغییرات رژیم جریان طبیعی و دست‌یابی به شرایط جریان مطلوب و پایدار بودن اکوسیستم آبی فراهم کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Aquatic of Ecosystem management and Restoration Rivers

نویسندگان [English]

  • mohammad hasan naderi 1
  • mehdi zakerinia 2
  • meysam Salarijazi 3
1 Department of Water Engineering, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
2 Associated Professor, Water Engineering Department, College of Water and Soil Engineering, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
3 Associated Professor, Water Engineering Department, College of Water and Soil Engineering, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Ecosystems management of river and water flow necessary for continuity of life and ecological sustainability of river based systems, requires recognition of environmental flows in the politics and intentions of water resource development projects and inclusion it in watershed management programs. In order to, in this research were analysis application of hydrological methods (Tennant, Tessman, Flow Duration Curve, Smakhtin, Arkansas, FDC-Shifting and DRM) and ecohydraulic habitat suitability simulation model (SEFA) in the environmental flows assessment of Qarasoo River in Golestan Province in interval of hydrometry stations Ghazmahalleh and Siahab, respectively with mean annual flow of 0.26 and 1.92 m3/s for restoration habitat, natural resurrection and conservation of biodiversity. The investigating provision of optimal flow ecosystem with field studies and measurements hydraulic and qualitative characteristics of the river in order to identify the favorable conditions of Capoeta capoeta gracilis hierarchical habitat showed would have the maximum and minimum flow regime required to preservation the Qarasoo river ecosystem according to ecological needs in months of april and september is estimated to order equivalent 3.11 and 0.48 m3/s, with average annual 1.6 m3/s (equivalent 83 percent of natural stream of the river). The results of study show environmental menaces will follow using the values obtained from simple hydrological methods Tennant, Smakhtin and Flow Duration Curve in water resource planning of this river , by contrast ecohydraulic model of SEFA can provide a general croquis of habitat suitability in intervals different of river relative to regime changes natural flow and attainment to optimal

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ecological Restoration
  • Habitat Suitability
  • Qarasoo River
  • Mean Annual Flow
  • water resources
1]. Tabatabai MM, Nadushan RM, Hashemi S. Impact of hydrogeomorphic processes on ecological functions of brown trout habits impact of hydrogeomorphic processes on brown trout habits. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2017; 14(8): 1757-1770.

[2]. Cooper AR, Infante DM, Daniel WM, Wehrly KE, Wang L, Brenden TO. Assessment of dam effects on streams and fish assemblages of the conterminous USA. Science of the Total Environment. 2017; 586: 879-889.

[3]. Stamou A, Polydera A, Papadonikolaki G, Martinez-Capel F, Munoz-Mas R, Papadaki C, and Dimitriou E. Determination of environmental flows in rivers using an integrated hydrological-hydrodynamic-habitat modelling approach.‏Journal of environmental management. 2018;‏209: 273-285.

[4]. Fahadiyan M, Bozorg-Haddad O, Pazooki M, Seifollahi-Aghmiuni S. Determine the optimal release flow rate from the dam reservoir, taking into account the quantitative and qualitative river requirements. Journal of Ecology. 2017; 43: 163-180. [Persian]

[5]. Ahn JM, Kwon HG, Yang DS, Kim YS. Assessing environmental flows of coordinated operation of dams and weirs in the Geum River basin under climate change scenarios. Science of The Total Environment. 2018; 643: 912-925.

[6]. Langhans SD, Gessner J, Hermoso V, Wolter C. Coupling systematic planning and expert judgement enhances the efficiency of river restoration. Science of the Total Environment. 2016; 560: 266-273.

[7]. Mrozinska N, GlinskaLewczuk K, Burandt, P, Kobus S, Gotkiewicz W, Szymanska M, Bakowska M, Obolewski K. Water Quality as an Indicator of Stream Restoration Effects—A Case Study of the Kwacza River Restoration Project. Water. 2018; 10(9): 1-19.

[8]. Macura V, Stefunkova ZS, Majorosova M, Halaj P, Skrinar A. Influence of discharge on fish habitat suitability curves in mountain watercourses in IFIM methodology. Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics. 2018; 66(1): 12-22.

[9]. Naderi MH, Zakerinia M, Salarijazi M. Investigation of Ecohydraulic Indices in Environmental Flow Regime and Habitat Suitability Simulation Analysis using River2D Model with Relying on the Restoration Ecological in Zarrin-Gol River. Journal of Ecohydrology. 2019; 6(1): 205-222. [Persian]

[10]. Nikghalb S, Shokoohi A, Singh VP, Yu R. Ecological Regime versus Minimum Environmental Flow: Comparison of Results for a River in a Semi Mediterranean Region.‏Water Resources Management. 2016;‏30(13): 4969-4984.

[11]. Razzaghi Rezaeieh A, Ahmadi H, Haghdoust NA, Hessari B. The evaluation of river environmental flow by using the ecohydrological methods (Case study: Mahabad-Chai River). Journal of Water and Soil Conservation. 2019; 25(6): 47-65. [Persian]

[12]. Overton IC, Smith DM, Dalton J, Barchiesi S, Acreman MC, Stromberg JC, Kirby JM. Implementing environmental flows in integrated water resources management and the ecosystem approach.‏Hydrological Sciences Journal. 2014;‏59(3-4): 860-877.

[13]. Esmaili K, Sadeghe Z, Kaboli A, Shafaei H. Application Hydrological methods for estimating River Environmental water rights (Case Study of Gorganroud River). Journal of Natural Environmenatal (Iranian Journal of Natural Recorces). 2018; 71(4): 437-451. [Persian]

[14]. Shaeri Karimi S, Yasi M, Eslamian S. Use of hydrological methods for assessment of environmental flow in a river reach. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2012; 9: 549-558.

[15]. Shahriari Nia E, Asadollahfardi G, Heidarzadeh NStudy of the environmental flow of rivers, a case study, Kashkan River, Iran. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology-Aqua. 2016; 65(2):181-94.

[16]. Sedighkia M, Ayyoubzadeh SA, Hajiesmaeli M. Modification of Tennant and Wetted Perimeter Methods in Simindasht Basin, Tehran Province. Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal. 2017; 50: 221-231.

[17]. Zarakani M, Shookohi A, Pising V. Introducing a comprehensive ecological diet in the absence of data to determine the true environmental status of rivers. Iranian Water Resources Research Journal. 2017; 13(2): 140-153. [Persian]

[18]. Gopal B. Environmental Flows: An Introduction for Water Resources Managers. National Institute of Ecology, New Delhi. 2013; pp 248.

[19]. Zhang Q, Xiao M, Liu CL, Singh VP. Reservoir-induced hydrological alterations and environmental flow variation in the East river, the Pearl river basin, China. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment. 2014; 28 (8): 2119-2131.

[20]. Verma RK, Murthy S, nd Tiwary RK. Assessment of environmental flows for various sub-watersheds of Damodar river basin using different hydrological methods. Journal Waste Resources. 2015; 5(182): 2.

 [21]. Karakoyun Y, Yumurtaci Z, Donmez AH. Environmental flow assessment for energy generation sustainability employing different hydraulic evaluation methods: Cambasi hydropower plant case study in Turkey. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy. 2016; 18(2): 583-591.

[22]. Yasi M, Ashori M. Environmental flow contributions from in-basin rivers and dams for saving Urmia lake.‏Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions of Civil Engineering.‏2017; 41 (1): 55-64.

[23]. Cheng F, Li W, Castello L, Murphy BR, nd Xie S. Potential effects of dam cascade on fish: lessons from the Yangtze River. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries. 2015; 25(3): 569-585.

 

[24]. Hajdukiewicz H, Wyzga B, Amirowicz A, Oglecki P, Radecki-Pawlik A, Zawiejska J, Mikus P. Ecological state of a mountain river before and after a large flood: Implications for river status assessment. Science of the Total Environment. 2018; 610: 244-257.

[25]. Talukdar S, Pal S. Impact of dam on flow regime and flood plain modification in Punarbhaba River Basin of Indo-Bangladesh Barind tract. Water Conservation Science and Engineering. 2018; 3(2): 59-77.

[26]. Operacz A, Walega A, Cupak A, Tomaszewska B. The comparison of environmental flow assessment-The barrier for investment in Poland or river protection?. Journal of cleaner production. 2018; 193: 575-592.

[27]. Khaledian Y, Ebrahimi S, Natesan U, Basatnia N, Nejad BB, Bagmohammadi H, Zeraatpisheh M. Assessment of water quality using multivariate statistical analysis in the Gharaso River, Northern Iran. In Urban ecology, water quality and climate change. 2018; 227-253.

[28]. Naderi MH, Zakerinia M, Salarijazi M. Evaluation of the Influential Factors on Water Quality Components of Qarasoo River in Golestan Province. Iranian Journal of Irrigation and Drainage. 2018; 12(5): 1240.1252. [Persian]

[29]. Abdi R, Yasi M. Evaluation of environmental flow requirements using eco-hydrologic–hydraulic methods in perennial rivers. Water Science and Technology. 2015;‏72 (3): 354-363.

[30]. Kazemi R, Ghermez Cheshmeh B. Investigation of different base flow separation methods using flow duration indices (Case study: Khazar region). Journal of Water and Soil Conservation. 2016; 23(2): 131-146. [Persian]

[31]. Jowett I, Payne T, Milhous R. System for Environmental Flow Analysis Software Manual Version 1.21. Aquatic Habitat Analysts, Inc. 2014; pp 223.

[32]. Ayyoubzadeh SA, Sedighkia M, Hajiesmaeili M. Ecohydraulics and Simulation of River Habitats.Water Engineering Research Institude Tarbiat Modares University. 2018; pp 252. [Persian]

[33]. Naderi MH. Evaluation Environmental Flow of River Using of Hydrological and Habitat Simulation Methods (Case Study: The Qarasoo River, species C.capoeta). Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. 2018; pp 195. [Persian]

[34]. Abdoli A., Naderi M. Biodiversity of Fishes of the Southern Basin of the Caspian Sea. Abzian Scientific Publication. 2009; pp 242. [Persian]

[35]. Lotfi, A. Guideline on rapid assessment of environmental features of rivers. Environment Protection Department of Iran Publication. 2012; pp 120. [Persian]