ارزیابی اثر نظارت بر بهره‏برداری از سامانه‏های آبیاری قطره‏ای بر ارزش اقتصادی آب، راندمان و بهره‏وری آبیاری در زراعت گندم و ذرت (مطالعۀ موردی: شهرستان فاریاب)

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشکده اقتصاد، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

2 کارشناس ارشد سازه‏های آبی، دانشگاه زابل

3 دانش‌آموختۀ دکتری علوم و مهندسی آبیاری، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

‌طراحی و اجرای سامانه‏های آبیاری معمولاً توسط افراد باتجربه و با صرف وقت، دقت و انرژی بسیار زیاد صورت می‏گیرد. این در حالی است که بهره‏برداری از سامانه‏های یادشده، توسط کشاورزانی صورت می‏گیرد که ضمن داشتن اطلاعات بسیار اندک در زمینۀ بهره‏برداری و نگهداری از سامانه‏های آبیاری، مدیریت کارآمد آبیاری، که بخش مهم بهره‏برداری از این سامانه‏ها هست را نیز به‌درستی انجام نمی‏دهند. به این منظور، پژوهش حاضر با هدف تعیین تأثیرات نظارت کارشناسی بر بهره‏برداری از سامانه‏های آبیاری قطره‏ای بر بازده و بهره‏وری آبیاری و همچنین ارزش اقتصادی آب در سال زراعی 1396ـ 1397 در شهرستان فاریاب انجام شد. به این منظور، از اطلاعات جمع‏آوری‌شده از مزارع مجهز به سامانۀ آبیاری قطره‏ای نواری شامل دو محصول ذرت و گندم استفاده شد. در پژوهش حاضر، پروژه‏های مطالعه‌شده، در شرایط پیش از اجرای نظارت و پس از اجرای نظارت مطالعه شدند. نتایج نشان داد با اجرای نظارت بر بهره‏برداری سامانه‏های آبیاری قطره‏ای، مصرف آب آبیاری برای گندم و ذرت به‌ترتیب 1212 و 1533 مترمکعب در هکتار کاهش یافته و عملکرد محصول گندم و ذرت به‌ترتیب 1000 و 3400کیلوگرم در هکتار افزایش یافته است. علاوه بر آن، پس از اجرای نظارت بر بهره‏برداری، میزان آبیاری، برای گندم و ذرت به‌ترتیب میزان آبیاری 11 و 16 درصد و مقدار کاربرد آب 57/0 و 54/0 کیلوگرم به ازای هر متر مکعب افزایش یافت. همچنین، برای گندم و ذرت به‌ترتیب بهره‏وری اقتصادی 5/0 و 64/0، بهره‏وری فیزیکی-اقتصادی 6550 و 6820 ریال به ازای هر متر مکعب و بهره‏وری فیزیکی 41/0 و 82/0 بهبود یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation the Effect of monitoring the operation and maintenance of drip irrigation systems on economic value of water, efficiency and productivity of irrigation in Wheat and Corn farming (Case study: Faryab County (

نویسندگان [English]

  • samaneh abedi 1
  • Rahimeh Dehghani Dashtabi 2
  • Farimah Omidi 3
1 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Economics, Allameh Tabataba'i University
2 Zabol Univerdity
3 Ph.D. scholar in Irrigation Science and Engineering; Tehran; Iran
چکیده [English]

this research was implemented in order to determine the effect of monitoring the operation of drip irrigation systems by experts on irrigation efficiency, water productivity, and irrigation water price. This research was carried on from 2017 to 2018 on the farms equipped with drip tape irrigation system. Dominant products of the studied area which have been monitored were Corn (Zea Mays) and Wheat (Triticum). In order to study the effect of supervision on efficiency and productivity, the projects were categorized in two comparative groups which were: 1. The projects implemented without supervision on operation and maintenance until the research was started; 2. The projects which were chosen and introduced by Kerman Province Agriculture-Jihad Organization in order to start supervision on operation and maintenance. The results indicated that after implementing the monitoring project, irrigation water consumption was decreased by 1212 and 1533 (m³/ha) for wheat and corn respectively. Also, crop yield was increased by 1000 and 3400 (kg/ha) for wheat and corn respectively. The monitoring project improved irrigation efficiency by 11% for wheat and 16% for corn. Water use efficiency was improved by 0.57 and 0.54 (k/m³) for wheat and corn respectively. In addition, physical productivity increased by 0.5 and 0.64, physical economical productivity increased by 6550 and 6820 (Rls/m³) and economic productivity increased by 0.41 and 0.82 for wheat and corn respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Crop production function
  • operation
  • and maintenance pressurized irrigation system
  • irrigation water price
  • irrigation efficiency
 

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