نقش تغییرات کاربری اراضی بر ویژگی‌های رواناب و سیل خیزی در حوضۀ آبریز دوآب

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای ژئومورفولوژی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

2 دانشیار گروه جغرافیای طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

3 استاد گروه جغرافیای طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

چکیده

تخریب جنگل و مراتع، تجاوز به حریم و بستر رودخانه و سیل‏خیز بودن حوضۀ آبریز دوآب طی سالیان اخیر به‌خصوص سیل فرودین 1398، احتمال تأثیر تغییرات کاربری اراضی بر ویژگی‏های سیلاب را مطرح می‏کند. هدف از انجام مطالعۀ حاضر، ارزیابی تأثیر تغییرات کاربری اراضی بر سیل‌خیزی حوضۀ آبریز دوآب بـا استفاده از مدل HEC- HMS، است. به این منظور، ابتدا نقشۀ کاربری اراضی حوضۀ آبریز دوآب برای سال‏های 1374 و 1398 تهیه شد. برای محاسبۀ‏ تلفات اولیۀ بارش و ارتفاع رواناب حوضه، از روش SCS و برای روندیابی سیل از روش ماسکینگام استفاده شد. به‏منظور بررسی اثر تغییرات کاربری اراضی بر ویژگی‏های سیل، داده‏های بارش و دبی سال آبی 1397 در مدل ایجادشده با شرایط کاربری اراضی سال 1374 اجرا شد. ارزیابی نقشه‏های کاربری اراضی، بیانگر کاهش مساحت اراضی جنگل و مراتع به میزان 71/56 و 25/28کیلومترمربع معادل 39/7 و 68/3 درصد کل مساحت حوضه و اراضی زراعی دیم، آبی و مناطق مسکونی به‌ترتیب 30/58، 88/19 و 78/6 کیلومترمربع معادل 60/7، 59/2 و 89/0 درصد افزایش داشته‏اند. همچنین، شمارۀ منحنی (CN) به‌طور میانگین از 60/64 به 80/76 افزایش یافته است. نتایج به‌دست‌آمده از این مقایسه نشان داد اوج رواناب به طور میانگین 46/15درصد و حجم رواناب حدود 74/19 درصد افزایش یافته است. این مطلب بیانگر کاهش مقدار تلفات اولیۀ بارش و افزایش رواناب است. بنابراین، می‏توان گفت که تغییرات کاربری اراضی در حوضۀ آبریز دوآب موجب افزایش اوج و حجم رواناب شده و در نهایت، به افزایش سیل‏خیزی در این حوضه منجر شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of Land Use Changes on Run-off and Flood Properties in the Doab Catchment

نویسندگان [English]

  • Iman Ali Belvasi 1
  • Sayyad Asghari Saraskanrod 2
  • Fariba Esfandiari Dorabad 3
  • Batool Zeinali 2
1 PhD Student in Geomorphology, Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil
2 Associate Professor, Department of Natural Geography, Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil
3 Professor, Department of Natural Geography, Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil
چکیده [English]

Deforestation and pastures, invasion of privacy and riverbanks, flooding of the Doab catchment during recent years, especially the downstream flood of 2019, raise the possibility of impacts of land use changes on flood characteristics.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of land use changes on flooding in Doab catchment using HEC-HMS model. For this purpose, first land use map of Doab catchment was prepared for the years 1995 and 2019. SCS method was used to calculate initial rainfall and basin run-off height and Muskingum method was used for flood routing. In order to investigate the effect of land use changes on flood characteristics, precipitation data and discharge for the year 2019 were implemented in the model created with land use conditions of 1995. Evaluation of land use maps showed reduction of forest area and Pastures area to the 56.71 and 28.25 square kilometers equivalent to 7.39 and 3.68 percentage of total basin area, dryland, irrigated and residential areas respectively 58.30, 19.88, and 6.78 square kilometers increased equivalent to 7.60, 2.59, and 0.89 percent. The results of this comparison showed that the average run-off peak increased by an average of 15.46 percent and the volume of run-off by an average of 19.74 percent. This indicates a decrease in the initial amount of rainfall losses and an increase in run-off. Therefore, it can be said that land use changes in the Doab catchment have increased the peak and volume of run-off and ultimately increased flooding in this basin.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • HEC-HMS model
  • Land use effect
  • SCS Method
  • curve number (CN)
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