مقایسۀ توزیع بارش در تیپ‌های جنگلی بلوط، اوجا و انجیلی

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دانشجوی دکترای عمران و بهره‏ برداری جنگل، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 دانشجوی دکترای عمران و بهره ‏برداری جنگل، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

4 دانشجوی دکترای علوم و مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

در بوم‏سازگان‏های جنگلی، ویژگی‏های پوشش گیاهی همراه با متغیرهای اقلیمی تأثیر زیادی بر توزیع اجزای بارش و چرخۀ آب می‏گذارد. از طرفی، چرخۀ آب کارکرد بسیار زیادی در روابط بین خاک، پوشش گیاهی و محیط در سطوح مختلف به عهده دارد. این چرخه یکی از پدیده‏های مهم اکولوژیکی در جامعه‏های‏ زیستی به‌خصوص در بوم‏سازگان جنگلی است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف اندازه‏گیری مقادیر بارش، هدررفت ‏ربایشی، میان‏گذر، ساقاب در توده‏های بلوط، اوجا و انجیلی در محل دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس شهرستان نور به‏عنوان نمایندگان توده‏های جنگل‏های هیرکانی کشور انجام شده است. اندازه‏گیری اجزای بارش توسط 23 ظرف جمع‏آوری‌کننده طی دورۀ یک‌ساله از تاریخ 15/08/1397 تا 15/08/1398 با ثبت 34 رگبار انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد بیشترین میزان ساقاب به‏‏ترتیب در تیپ‏های بلوط، انجیلی و اوجا با مقدار 97/0، 56/0 و 34/0 درصد بود. بین ساقاب و بارندگی کل یک رابطۀ افزاینده و قوی در تیپ انجیلی (70/0R2=) به‏دست آمد. بیشترین میزان هدررفت ربایشی به‏ترتیب در گونه‏های بلوط، اوجا و انجیلی با مقدار 19، 17 و 8 درصد بوده است. تحلیل رگرسیون بین میزان بارندگی کل و میانگین هدررفت ‏ربایشی در گونۀ بلوط (61/0R2=) در اوجا (62/0R2=) و در گونۀ انجیلی (46/0R2=) مشاهده شد. نتیجۀ آزمون ANOVA نیز مؤید نبود اختلاف معنا‏دار بین هدررفت‏ ربایشی (790/0P=) و میان‏گذر (894/0P=) بین سه تیپ مطالعاتی بوده است. در حالی ‏که اختلاف بین میزان رطوبت موجود در لاش‏برگ‏های بلوط نسبت به دو تیپ اوجا و انجیلی (015/0=P) و همچنین، بین مقادیر ساقاب تیپ‏های بلوط و اوجا (009/0P=) معنادار بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of Distribution of Precipitation in Quercus castanifolia, Ulmus glabra and Parotica percica Forest Types

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Hamidreza Sadeghi 1
  • Behroz Chogan 2
  • Amir Savadkouhi 3
  • Morteza Esmaeilzadeh 2
  • Atefeh Jafarpoor 4
  • Mahin Kalehhouei 4
1 Professor, Department of Watershed Management Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Iran
2 PhD Students of Forestry and Natural Resources Faculty of Tarbiat Modares University, Iran
3 PhD Students of Forestry and Natural Resources Faculty of Tarbiat Modares University, Iran
4 PhD Students in Watershed Science and Engineering Faculty of Natural Resources Tarbiat Modares University, Iran
چکیده [English]

In forest ecosystems, vegetation characteristics along with climatic parameters have a great influence on the distribution of precipitation components and water cycle. The present study was therefore conducted to measure the amounts of interception loss, throughfall and stemflow in Quercus castanifolia, Ulmus glabra and Parotica Percica at the campus of Faculty of Natural Resources of Tarbiat Modarres University, Noor, as representative of Hyrcanian forests of the country. Precipitation measurements were carried out by 23 collector containers over the course of a year from 06/10/2018 to 06/10/2019 with 34 storm events. The results showed that the rates of steamflow in Quercus, Parotica and Ulmus species were 0.97, 0.56 and 0.34%, respectively. There was a strong, positive and linear relationship between steamflow and precipitation in the Parotica type (R2 = 0.70). The interception losses were also 19, 17 and 8% in the Quercus, Ulmus and Parotica species, respectively. Regressions were also satisfactorily established between total precipitation and mean interception loss with coefficient of determination of 0.61, 0.62 and 0.46 for Quercus, Ulmus and Parotica stands, respectively. The results of ANOVA verified no significant difference between interception loss (P = 0.790) and throghfall values (P = 0.894) among the three study species. However, there was significant difference (p=0.015) between the moisture contents of litters in Quercus sp. compared to other two types of Ulmus sp. and Parotica sp. There was also a significant difference between the values of Quercus sp and Ulmus sp (P = 0.009).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ecohydrology
  • Forest Hydrology
  • Forest management
  • Interception Loss
  • water cycle
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