تهیۀ نقشۀ خطر وقوع سیلاب در حوضۀ آبریز گمناب‌چای با استفاده از مدل ANP و تکنیک GIS

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی


1 استاد گروه ژئومورفولوژی، دانشکدۀ برنامه‏ریزی و علوم محیطی، دانشگاه تبریز

2 دانشجوی دکترای ژئومورفولوژی، دانشکدۀ برنامه‏ریزی و علوم محیطی، دانشگاه تبریز


مناطق کوهستانی شمال ‏غرب کشور به‏دلیل توپوگرافی خاص خود و بارش تقریباً مناسب طی سال و به‏خصوص در فصل بهار، ازجمله مناطق مستعد وقوع مخاطرۀ سیل هستند. تحقیق حاضر با هدف تهیۀ نقشۀ پهنه‏بندی خطر وقوع سیلاب در حوضۀ آبریز گمناب‌چای واقع در استان آذربایجان شرقی انجام‏ گرفته است. برای تهیۀ نقشۀ پهنه‏بندی خطر وقوع سیل از 10 فاکتور مؤثر در وقوع این پدیده استفاده شده است که عبارت‏اند از: بارش، لیتولوژی، کاربری اراضی، شیب، تراکم پوشش گیاهی، شاخص قدرت آبراهه، شاخص رطوبت توپوگرافیک، تراکم زهکشی، شاخص حمل رسوب، ضریب گراویلیوس. به‏منظور وزن‌دهی معیارها در تحقیق حاضر از روش تحلیل شبکه‏ای (ANP) و نرم‏افزار Super Decisions استفاده شد. نتایج نهایی به‌دست‌آمده از تحقیق حاضر نشان داد وزن معیارهای 10 گانۀ یادشده به‌ترتیب 271/0، 201/0، 150/0، 118/0، 081/0، 056/0، 043/0، 032/0، 025/0 و 018/0 است که معیارهای بارش، لیتولوژی، کاربری اراضی و شیب بیشترین وزن را داشته‏اند. درنهایت، با تلفیق این لایه‏ها با توجه به وزنشان در محیط GIS، نقشۀ پهنه‏بندی به‏ دست ‏آمد. نتایج نشان داد 210 کیلومترمربع (50 درصد) از مساحت منطقه در معرض خطر وقوع سیلاب قرار دارد. بنابراین، لزوم مدیریت آب‏های سطحی در منطقه به‏منظور جلوگیری از وقوع سیل و همچنین بهره‏برداری مناسب از آب‏های منطقه ضروری به نظر می‏رسد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Preparing the Risk Map of Flood Occurrence in the Ghomnab Chai Basin Using ANP Model and GIS Technique

نویسندگان [English]

  • Davod Mokhtari 1
  • Mohammad Hossein Rezaei Moghaddam 1
  • Tohid Rahimpour 2
  • Somayyeh Moazzez 2
1 Professor of Geomorphology, Department of Geomorphology, Faculty of Planning and Environmental Sciences, University of Tabriz, Iran
2 PhD Student in Geomorphology, Department of Geomorphology, Faculty of Planning and Environmental Sciences, University of Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

The mountainous areas of northwest of the country are susceptible to flood risk due to their topography and relatively good rainfall throughout the year, especially in spring. The aim of this study was to prepare a map of the risk of flooding in the Gomanab Chai catchment, which is located in the East Azerbaijan province. 10 effective factors in the occurrence of this phenomenon, such as Precipitation, Lithology, Land use, Slope, Vegetation density, Stream Power Index, Topographic wetness index, Drainage density, Sediment Transport Index, Gravelius coefficient were used to prepare the zoning map. Network Analysis Method (ANP) and Super Decisions software were used to weighting the criteria in this study. The final results obtained from the present study showed that the weight of the 10 criteria were 0.271, 0.201, 0.150, 0.118, 0.081, 0.056, 0.043, 0.032, 0.025 and 0.018 respectively. Precipitation, lithology, land use and slope had the highest weights, respectively. Finally, by combining these layers according to their weight in GIS, the zoning map was obtained. The results showed that 210 km2 (50%) of the area is at risk of flooding. Therefore, the necessity of managing surface water in the area seems necessary in order to prevent flooding as well as proper exploitation of the waters of the area.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Flood
  • ANP model
  • Super Decisions
  • Ghomnab Chai Basin
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