اثر پخش طبیعی سیلاب اسفند 1397 بر خصوصیات کمی و کیفی آب زیرزمینی در پهنۀ سیلاب‌دشت بخش انتهایی حوضۀ آبریز گرگان‌رود

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد آبخیزداری، دانشگاه گنبد کاووس

2 استادیار دانشگاه گنبد کاووس، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی

3 دانشجوی دکتری هیدروژئولوژی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

به‏منظور بررسی تأثیر سیلاب اسفندماه 1397 بر تغییرات کمی و کیفی آب زیرزمینی، پهنۀ سیلاب‌دشت انتهایی حوضۀ آبریز گرگان‌رود که به‏طور طبیعی در معرض سیلاب قرار گرفته بود، انتخاب شد. برای بررسی تغییرات کمی و کیفی آب زیرزمینی، به‏ترتیب تعداد 17 و 11 حلقه چاه مشاهده‏ای با پراکنش مناسب در محدودۀ مطالعه‌شده انتخاب شد. سپس، اطلاعات کمی (سطح آب زیرزمینی) و کیفی (11 پارامتر فیزیکوشیمیایی) چاه‏ها در دو دورۀ قبل و بعد از وقوع سیل جمع‏آوری شد. ابتدا تغییرات سطح آب زیرزمینی در دو دوره با آزمون T زوجی و تراز متوسط آب زیرزمینی دردشتبررسی شد. سپس، تغییرات خصوصیات فیزیکوشیمیایی در دو دوره با استفاده از آزمون T زوجی ارزیابی شد. در نهایت، تغییرات هیدروژئوشیمیایی با استفاده از دیاگرام‌های گیبس، دوروف و پایپر و کیفیت آب کشاورزی و شرب با استفاده از دیاگرام‏های ویلکوکس و شولر بررسی شد. نتایج آزمون T زوجی نشان داد سطح آب زیرزمینی در 2/88 درصد چاه‏های مشاهده‏ای بعد از وقوع سیلاب افزایش معنا‏داری داشته ‌است. این امر باعث افزایش سطح آب زیرزمینی و همچنین، هیدروگراف واحد دشت (حدود 2 متر) بعد از وقوع سیل شده‌ است. نتایج بررسی تغییرات پارامترهای کیفی آب زیرزمینی نشان داد در اغلب چاه‏های مشاهده‏ای بعد از سیلاب مقدار EC، آنیون‏ها و کاتیون‏ها (به‏جز نیترات) کاهش یافته است. این امر باعث کاهش سختی آب زیرزمینی شده، اما تأثیر چشمگیری روی تیپ و رخساره‌های هیدروژئوشیمیایی آب زیرزمینی سیلاب‌دشت مطالعه‌شده نداشته ‌است. این امر می‌تواند ناشی از شباهت هیدروشیمیایی آب نفوذی و آب زیرزمینی آبخوان دشت باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of natural flood spreading of March 2019 on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of groundwater in floodplain at the end of Gorganroud basin

نویسندگان [English]

  • Artegh Gorganli Davaji 1
  • Nader Jandaghi 2
  • Mojtaba G. Mahmoodlu 2
  • Yaghob Nick Ghojogh 3
1 Msc in watershed management,, , University of Gondad Kavous
2 Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gonbad Kavous University, Assistant Professor
3 Msc in hydrogeology
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effect of flood in March 2019 on quantitative and qualitative changes of groundwater, the floodplain at the end of Gorganroud river basin, which was naturally exposed to floods, was selected. To investigate changes in groundwater quantity and quality, 17 and 11 observation wells with suitable distribution in the study area were selected, respectively. Then, quantitative (groundwater level) and qualitative data (11 physicochemical parameters) of wells were collected in two periods before and after the floods. First, groundwater level changes in two periods were evaluated by paired T-test and average groundwater level of the plain. Then, physicochemical characteristics changes in two periods were evaluated using paired T-test. Finally, hydrogeochemical changes were assessed using Gibbs, Durov and Piper diagrams, and the water quality for agricultural and drinking purposes were investigated using Wilcox and Schoeller diagrams. Paired T-test results showed that the groundwater level in 88.2% of the observation wells after the flood had a significant increase. This has increased the groundwater level as well as the unit hydrograph of the plain (about 2 meters) after the flood. The results of changes in groundwater quality parameters showed that the amount of EC, anions and cations (except NO3) were decreased in most of the observed wells after the flood. This has reduced the hardness of groundwater but has not had a significant effect on the type and hydrogeochemical facies of floodplain groundwater. The reason can be the hydrochemical similarity of infiltrated water and groundwater of the plain aquifer.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Flood
  • Groundwater
  • Aquifer
  • physicochemical characteristics
  • floodplain
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