نقد و بررسی سبدهای غذایی مطلوب و فعلی جامعۀ ایرانی با رویکرد همبست آب و غذا

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری علوم و مهندسی آب، گروه مهندسی آب، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 استاد، گروه مهندسی آب، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه انرژی ‏های نو و محیط ‏زیست دانشکدۀ علوم و فنون نوین، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

4 دانشیار، گروه تغذیۀ جامعه، دانشکدۀ علوم تغذیه و رژیم‏شناسی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران، تهران، ایران

5 استاد، گروه حفاظت محیط‏ زیست، پردیس علوم طبیعی، دانشگاه ماساچوست، آمهرست، آمریکا

چکیده

سبد غذایی جامعه به عنوان یک ارتباط‏دهندۀ بخش کشاورزی با منابع آب، می‏تواند به عنوان شاخصی برای بررسی پایداری زیست‌محیطی تأمین غذای جامعه استفاده شود. از این‌رو، در پژوهش حاضر همبست آب و غذا برای دو سبد غذایی مطلوب وزارت بهداشت و سبد غذایی فعلی جامعه بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد از منظر تأثیر سبدهای غذایی بر محیط ‏زیست، سبد غذایی مطلوب وزارت بهداشت رد پای آب آبی برابر با 6/733 مترمکعب/نفر/سال و رد پای آب خاکستری معادل 2/37 مترمکعب/نفر/سال به همراه دارد. در بین 6 گروه غذایی بررسی‌شده، گروه غذایی گوشت، تخم‌مرغ، حبوبات و مغزها بیشترین سهم در رد پاهای آب را دارد. جایگزینی سبد غذایی مطلوب با سبد غذایی فعلی سبب کاهش برداشتی معادل با 4/371 میلیون مترمکعب/سال از منابع آب سطحی و زیرزمینی کشور و تولید 103 میلیون مترمکعب/سال رد پای آب خاکستری کمتر می‏شود. در بررسی مطلوبیت اقتصادی سبد غذایی نیز مشخص شد که تأمین سبد غذایی مطلوب وزارت بهداشت، سالانه تقریباً 8850000 تومان/نفر هزینه دارد که حدود 282 هزار تومان کمتر از هزینه تأمین سبد غذایی فعلی جامعه برای هر نفر است. با توجه به آنکه سهم قابل توجهی از هزینه و رد پاهای آب سبد غذایی مطلوب وزارت بهداشت نیز متعلق به گوشت، تخم مرغ، حبوبات و مغزها است، جایگزینی محصولات این گروه با موادغذایی که رد پای آب کمتر، هزینۀ کمتر و موادمغذی کافی را دارند، توصیه می‏شود. در مجموع، سبد غذایی مطلوب وزارت بهداشت در مقایسه با سبد فعلی جامعه، به عنوان سبد غذایی مناسب از منظر اقتصادی و زیست‌محیطی معرفی می‏شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Critique and review of desirable and present food baskets of Iranian society using the water and food nexus approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Mohammadi 1
  • Mohammad Ebrahim Banihabib 2
  • Hossein Yousefi 3
  • Hamed Pouraram 4
  • Timothy O. Randhir 5
1 Department of new Energies and Environment, Faculty of New sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran
2 Department of Water Engineering, College of Aburaihan , University of Tehran
3 Department of Renewable Energies and Environment, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran
4 Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS)
5 Department of Environmental Conservation, College of Natural Sciences, University of Massachusetts
چکیده [English]

The community food basket, as a link between the agricultural sector and water resources, can be used as an indicator to assess the environmental sustainability of the community food supply. Therefore, in this study, the water and food nexus for the two desirable food baskets of the Ministry of Health (DMH) and the present food basket (PFB) of the Iranian society was investigated. The results revealed that in terms of the impact of food baskets on the environment, the DMH food basket has blue and gray water footprints equal to 736 m3/person/year and 36.7 m3/person/year, respectively. Among food groups, the food group of meat, eggs, legumes and nuts has the largest share in water footprints. Replacing the desired food basket (DMH) with the PFB will reduce 383 MCM/year of surface and groundwater resources withdrawal and 102 MCM/year of gray water footprint production. Survey of economic desirability of food baskets, revealed providing the DMH food basket costs approximately 7700000 Tomans/person annually, which is approximately 400 thousand Tomans less than the cost of providing the PFB for each person. Considering that a significant share of the cost and footprints of the DMH food basket belongs to the meat, eggs, legumes and nuts food group, replacing the products of this group with foods that have less water footprints, lower costs and sufficient nutrients is recommended. In general, the DMH food basket is introduced as a suitable economic and environmental alternative to the present food basket.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • water footprint
  • Desired food basket
  • Water and food nexus
  • Cost of food provision
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