بررسی عوامل طبیعی و انسانی مؤثر بر تغییرات طبقات کاربری اراضی تالاب شادگان

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار بخش تحقیقات بیابان، مؤسسۀ تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران

2 پژوهشگر مرکز فضایی ماهدشت

10.22059/ije.2022.332440.1567

چکیده

تالاب شادگان در منتهی‏الیه حوضۀ ‏آبخیز جراحی واقع شده است. به‏منظور پایش میزان تغییرات پوشش آب، گیاه و اراضی خشک‌شده، ابتدا اقدام به تعیین محدودۀ آب شیرین تالاب در پرآب‏ترین شرایط آن شد. از داده‏های ماهواره‏ای لندست TM و ETM+ و OLI سال‏های 1988 تا 2020 استفاده شد. از طبقه‏بندی نظارت‌شده به روش ماشین بردار پشتیبان (SVM) استفاده و تصاویر در سه کلاس آب، پوشش گیاهی و خاک طبقه‏بندی شد. دقت طبقه‏بندی تصاویر با دو شاخص، دقت کلی و کاپا محاسبه شد. مساحت هر یک از طبقات در محیط GIS پهنه‏بندی شده و به درصد محاسبه شد. با توجه به اینکه تعیین میزان سهم هر یک از مؤلفه‏های تأثیرگذار بر سطوح مختلف تالاب شادگان در بازۀ زمانی 1988-2018 هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر است، از توابع چندلایۀ پرسپترون شبکه‏های عصبی استفاده شد و پس از مقایسۀ کارایی مدل‏ها براساس مجموع مربعات خطا (SSE) و خطای نسبی (RE) داده‏های آموزشی و تست و همچنین، ضریب همبستگی (R) بین مقادیر اندازه‏گیری‌شده و تخمین‌زده‌شدۀ سطوح مختلف طبقات کاربری اراضی تالاب، بهترین مدل انتخاب شد و براساس آن، میزان تأثیر هر یک از پارامترها بر سطوح مختلف طبقه‏بندی‌شده در بازۀ زمانی مورد مطالعه مشخص شد. نتایج نشان داد دقت طبقه‏بندی در مجموع 93 درصد بود. روند تغییرات مساحت طبقۀ آب و خاک افزایشی و طبقۀ پوشش گیاهی تالاب کاهشی بود. بهترین مدل برازش‌یافتۀ شبکۀ عصبی مصنوعی ساختار شبکۀ چندلایۀ پرسپترون در حالت اول با تابع لایۀ انتقال پنهان اتوماتیک و تابع لایۀ خروجی تانژانت هیپربولیک به دلیل زیاد بودن ضریب همبستگی (R=0.79) و پایین بودن خطاهای نسبی و مجموع مربعات خطا با دقت بیشتری نسبت به سایر مدل‏های شبکه انتخاب شد. نتایج اجرای این مدل برای طبقات مختلف تالاب نشان داد سهم عوامل انسانی و طبیعی به‌ترتیب در خشکیدگی تالاب 4/55 و 6/44 درصد، در تغییرات سطح آب تالاب 8/70 و 2/29 درصد و در تغییرات پوشش گیاهی 62 و 38 درصد بوده است. بنابراین، تالاب شادگان بیش از هر چیز مدیریت انسانی در سطح حوضۀ آبخیز و تأمین حقابۀ مورد نیاز را می‏طلبد تا بتواند به عنوان یک اکوسیستم تالابی ایفای نقش کند و به حیات خود ادامه دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of natural and human factors affecting land use changes in Shadegan wetland

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Dargahian 1
  • Yosef Mousivand 2
1 Fatemeh Dargahian: Research institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran.
2 , Researcher of Iran Space Research Center, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Shadegan wetland is located at the end of Jarahi watershed. In order to monitor the changes in water cover, vegetation and uncovered or dried lands, first the area of Tala Shirin in its most waterlogged conditions was determined. Landsat TM, ETM + and OLI satellite data from 1988 to 2018 in June were used. Supervised vector classification (SVM) was used and the images were classified into three classes: water, vegetation and soil. Image classification accuracy was calculated with two indicators, overall accuracy and kappa. The area of each class was zoned in GIS and calculated as a percentage. Due to the fact that determining the share of each of the components affecting different levels of Shadegan wetland in the period (1988-2018) is the main purpose of this study, the radius and multilayer perceptron functions of neural networks were used. And after comparing the efficiency of the models, the best model was selected and based on it, the effect of each parameter on the different levels of classification in the study period was determined. The results showed that the share of human and natural factors in drought was 55.4% and 44.6% in the wetland, 70.8% and 29.2% in the water level of the wetland and 62% and 38% in the vegetation, respectively. Therefore, Shadegan wetland, more than anything else, requires human management at the watershed level and the provision of the required water supply in order to be able to play a role and continue its life as a wetland ecosystem.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • watershed
  • Jarahi River
  • dams
  • irrigation networks
  • share of human and natural factors
[1]. Dargahian F, kosroshahi M, lotfinasabasl S. Investigating the trend of changes in water area of Shadegan wetland and its relation with drought occurrence Hydrology and sugarcane Drainage water. Journal of Environmental Studies, 2020; 46(2): 225-240. [Persian]
[2]. Haack B. Monitoring wetland changes with remote sensing: an East African example. Environmental Management, 1996; 20(3): 411-419.
[3]. Papastergiadou E S, Retalis A, Apostolakis A, Georgiadis T. Environmental monitoring of spatio-temporal changes using remote sensing and GIS in a Mediterranean wetland of Northern Greece. Water Resources Management, 2008; 22(5): 579-594.
[4]. Middleton B. A. Climate and landm-use change in wetlands: A dedication. Ecosystem Health and Sustainability, 2017; 3(9): 1-20.
[5]. Chen J, Wang S Y, Mao Z P. Monitoring wetland changes in Yellow River Delta by remote sensing during 1976–2008. Progress in Geography, 2008; 30(5): 585-592.‏
‏ [6]. Kuleli T, Guneroglu A, Karsli F, Dihkan M. Automatic detection of shoreline change on coastal Ramsar wetlands of Turkey. Ocean Engineering, 2011; 38(10): 1141-1149.
[7]. Chen L, Jin Z, Michishita R, Cai J, Yue T, Chen B, Xu B. Dynamic monitoring of wetland cover changes using time-series remote sensing imagery. Ecological Informatics, 2014: 24: 17-26.
[8]. Karami P, Mirsanjeri M. An Analysis of Destruction of Landform in Hawizi's Great Wetlands Using Remote Sensing, Journal of Wetland Ecobiology, 2018; 10(1); 29-54. [Persian]
[9]. Chovok J, Mohseni M. Investigating the Process of Land Use Change in Parishan Wetland Using Remote Sensing, Journal of Zist Sepehr, 2016; 11(2):11-19. [Persian]
 [10]. Bayat R, Jafari S. Survey of Shadegan Wetland Changes Using the NDWI Index, First International Dust Conference, 2015; Ahwaz, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz. [Persian]
 [11]. Mehrpouyan M, Jami M, Pourkermani M. Investigating the Seasonal and Seasonal Changes of Lake Jazmourian from 1972 to 2012 by Satellite Imagery and GIS Software, 2013; Fifth International Conference on Comprehensive Management of Natural Disasters, Tehran. [Persian]
[12]. Pourkhobaz H, Yousefi Khaneghah Sh, Salehipour FInvestigating the trend of land use change and land cover in Shadegan wetland using remote sensing and GIS and providing management solutions, Journal of Wetland Ecobiology, 2015; 7 (25): 55-66. [Persian]
[13]. Dashti S S, Sabzghabai Gh R, Jafarzadeh K, Bazmara Baleshti M. Evaluation of Trends in Miankaleh Coastal Wetland with Land Use Approach, Journal of Wetland Ecobiology, 2018;10 (4): 20-5. [Persian]
[14]. Makroni S, Sabzqbaee GH, Yousefi Khaneghah Sh, Soltaniyan S. 2016. Detection of Land Use Change Process in Hooralazim Wetland Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System, Remote Sensing Journal and Information System Geography, 2016; 7(3): 89-99. [Persian]
[15]. Dastaran H, Tavakoli F, Sultanpour A. Survey of surface and volumetric changes of Lake Urmia water using satellite imagery and satellite altimetry, Journal of Wetland Ecobiology, 2018; 10(37):163-149. [Persian]
 
[16]. Razavi Doleh Malal S, Nezhadnaderi M. Investigation of environmental water rights of Amirkalayeh wetland. Wetland Ecobiology, 2020; 12 (4):5-18. [Persian]
[17]. Pourramezan Gabiyeh S, Janalipour M, Nikfar M, Abbaszadeh Tehrani N. Monitoring Spatio-temporal Changes of Kiakallayeh Wetland in Langeroud for Investigating its Damages using Remote Sensing. Wetland Ecobiology, 2020; 12 (3):5-22. [Persian]
[18]. Faizi B, Ahmadi Fard N, Erfanian M. Study of changes in vegetation and water level in Zarivar Lake using Landsat satellite in the period 1984 to 2016. Wetland Ecobiology, 2021; 13 (3). [Persian]
[19]. Mafi M, Azizi Z, karimi P, Alemi Safaval P. Investigating the trend of water level changes in Allahabad wetland by using temporal images. Iranian journal of Ecohydrology, 2021; 8(2), 321-329. [Persian]
[20]. Dastaran M, Jafari S, Moslemi H, Attarchi S, Alavipanah S K. Change Detection of Bakhtegan wetland using a time series of satellite data on the Google Earth Engine platform and predicting parameters with Facebook’s Prophet Model. Journal of RS and GIS for Natural Resources, 2021‏;13(3) [Persian].
 [21]. Amiri K, seyed kaboli H, Mahmoodi-kohan. Study and monitoring of wetland area changes and its impact on wetland surface temperature using NDWI, MNDWI, and AWEI indices (case study: Hor-alazim and Shadegan wetlands). Irrigation Sciences and Engineering, 2020. [Persian]
[22 ]. Mcarthy M J, Radabaugh K R, Moyer R P, Muller-Karger F E. Enabling efficient, large-scale high-spatial resolution wetland mapping using satellites. Remote sensing of environment, 2018; 208, 189-201.
[23]. Zorrilla-Miras P, Palomo I, Gómez-Baggethun E, Martín-López B, Lomas P L, Montes C. Effects of land-use change on wetland ecosystem services: A case study in the Doñana marshes (SW Spain). Landscape and Urban Planning, 2014; (122): 160-174.
[24]. Bali A, Monavari S, M, Jafari M, Abdollahi Sh. Land use change trends in Anzali Wetland Basin during 2000, 1989, 1975, and 2007 with emphasis on urban and land development Built, Journal of Environmental Science, 2012; (53-54): 73-80. [Persian]
[25]. Jahani Shakibe F, Malek Mohammadi B, Yavari A, Shari A, Adeli F. Evaluation of Changes in Land Use and Changing the Climate in Choghakhor Wetland with Emphasis on Environmental Effects, Journal of Environmental, 2014; 40(3): 631-643. [Persian]
[26]. Kayastha N, ThomasV, Galbraith J, Banskota A. Monitoring wetland change using inter-annual landsat time-series data. Wetlands, 2012; 32(6), 1149-1162.
[27]. Sedaghat, M., Nazaripour, H. (2020). Monitoring variability of soil moisture in Hour-al-Azim Wetland and its relation to dust storms in southwest Iran. Scientific- Research Quarterly of Geographical Data (SEPEHR), 29(114), 133-145.
[28]. Mottahedi S, Tateian M, Tamrtash R, Akbarlo M. Evaluation and analysis of land use changes in the Gomishan International Wetland Area in Golestan Province Using Remote Sensing, Second National Conference on Environmental Science, Agriculture and Natural Resources of Hamedan, September 16th; 2017. [Persian]
[29]. Baluchi B, Dehghani M, Niko M. Investigation of Land Use Change and Effects of Karkheh Dam Construction Using Satellite Images and Classification Method of Most Similarities, Journal of Water Resources Engineering, 2016; 9(28): 19-32. [Persian]
[30]. Jafari S, Hamzeh S, Abdolazimi H, Attarchi S. Two decades of monitoring Maharloo Wetland using satellite data provided in Google Earth Engine. Scientific- Research Quarterly of Geographical Data (SEPEHR), 2021; 30(118), 153-168. [Persian]
[31]. Heydarian P, Azhdari A, Judkie M, Dervishi Khatooni J, Shahbazi R. Identification of Internal Origin of Dust Walnut Storms Using Remote Sensing, GIS and Geology (Case Study: Khuzestan Province) Journal of Earth Sciences, 2017 (105): 33-46. [Persian]
[32]. Dargahian F, Heydarnejad S, Nateghi S. Investigating the effective factors on water area changes in Shadegan Wetland using remote sensing technique and factor analysis. Environmental Sciences, 2022; 20(1): 30-47 [Persian]
[33]. Abbasi Hamidreza, Christian Opp, Mohammad Khosroshahi and Azadeh Gohardost, 2016. Temporal and spatial variability of wind erosion in Sistanʼs Baringak Hamoun Lake, The 34th national&2nd
[34]. Lotfi A, Shadegan Wetland Environmental Management Plan Report No. 1: Natural Ecosystem of Shadegan Wetland, Ministry of Jihad Agriculture, Water and Soil Deputy, Irrigation Improvement Project, Pandam Consulting Engineers, 2002. [Persian]
[35]. http://iranwetland.blogfa.com/. Bagherzadeh Karimi, M. 2011. Methodology for determining the boundaries and privacy of wetlands
[36]. Issavi V, Rezaei Chianneh A. Analysis of the Effect of Drought and Land Use Change and Land Cover on Sulduz Lake Wetlands, Journal of Wetland Ecobiology, 2014; 6(19): 91-101. [Persian]
[37]. Dargahian, F., Teimori, S., Lotfinasbasl, S., Razavizadeh, S. Land use Changes in the Mansouriyeh Wetland and its Relation with the Occurrence of Drought and Dust Formation in the Ahwaz Metropolis. Watershed Management Researches Journal, 2019; 32(4), 94-104. [Persian]
[38]. Dargahian F. The sugar cane drainage; a threat or an opportunity for the Shadegan Wetland? Iran Nature, 2019; 4(3), 7-9.. [Persian]