عنوان مقاله [English]
In present study effects of riparian vegetation on morphometric and morphological changes have been investigated in a part of Talar River during 58 years. So land use maps produced for 1955 and 2013 by aerial photos. Results show during study time riparian vegetation changed extremely and approximately 96% of riparian vegetation removed during 58 years. In additionally, results showed during study period riparian vegetation removed and converted to residential and agriculture lands. Morphometeric and morphological parameters have been calculated for both times. Paired t test showed, there is a significant differences between River Network Change Index, Braided Index, Sediment Bar Length and River Width in 99 percent confidence level. ANOVA analyses used to investigate effect of riparian vegetation on changes in river parameters. Results showed also, there is significant differences between indexes such as RNCI, BI and river Width in parts of river that have riparian vegetation and parts without riparian vegetation in 99% confidence level, since river have more variation at places that riparian vegetation have been removed and changed to other land use classes. Results showed, that riparian vegetation in river side’s has significant roles on decreasing bank erosion in river Talar.
10. Bin, Z. et al., 2008, Meanders of the Jialing River in China: morphology and formation. Chinese Science Bulletin, 53(2),pp. 267-281.
11. Blanckaert, K. and de Vriend, H.J. 2003. Nonlinear modeling of mean ﬂow redistribution in curved open channels. Water Resources Research, 39 (12), pp 1375.
12. Brice, J.C. 1960. Index for description of channel braiding. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 85, pp. 581–586.
13. Brookes, A. and Shields, F.D.J. 1996. River Channel Restoration: Guiding Principles for Sustainable Projects. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK.
14. Camporeale, C. and Ridolfi, L. 2010. Interplay among river meandering, discharge stochasticity and riparian vegetation. Journal of Hydrology, 382(1-4):pp.138-144.
15. Camporeale, C. et al., 2007. Hierarchy of models for meandering rivers and related morphodynamic processes. Reviews of Geophysics 45 (1), RG1001, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2005RG000185.
16. Chen, D. and Tang, C. 2012. Evaluating secondary ﬂows in the evolution of sine-generated meanders. Geomorphology, 163–164:pp. 37–44.
17. Chu Z.X, et al., 2006. Changing pattern of accretion/erosion of the modern Yellow River (Huanghe) sub aerial delta, China: Based on remote sensing images. Mar Geol 227: pp. 13– 30.
18. Constantine, J.A. and Dunne, T. 2008. Meander cutoff and the controls on the production of oxbow lakes. Geology, 36, pp. 23-26.
19. Crosato, A. 2009. Physical explanations of variations in river meander migration rates from model comparison. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 34(15): pp. 2078-2086.
20. Crosato, A. 2010. Analysis and modelling of river meandering. Ph.D thesis, Delft University 267pp.
21. Cserke´ sz-Nagy, A. et al., 2010. Erosional scours and meander development in response to river engineering: middle Tisza region, Hungary. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 121, pp. 238-247.
22. Dai, S.B. et al., 2008. Impacts of Dams on the Sediment Flux of the Pearl River, Southern China. Catena, 76(1):pp. 36-43.
23. Das T.K, et al., 2014. River bank erosion induced human displacement and its consequences. Living Review in Landscape Research, 83: pp. 5-35.
24. Frascati, A. and Lanzoni, S. 2010. Long-term river meandering as a part of chaotic dynamics? A contribution from mathematical modeling. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 35, pp. 791–802.
25. Gautier, E. et al., 2007. Temporal relations between meander deformations, water discharge and sediment ﬂuxes in the ﬂoodplain of the Rio Beni (Bolivian Amazonia). Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 32 (2), pp. 230–248.
26. Gordon, E. and Meentemeyer, R.K. 2006. Effects of dam operation and land use on stream channel morphology and riparian vegetation. Geomorphology, 82, pp. 412– 429.
27. Grenfell, M.C. et al., 2013. Mediative adjustment of river dynamics: The role of chute channels in tropical sand-bed meandering rivers. Sedimentary Geology, doi: 10.1016/j.sedgeo.2013.06.007.
28. Güneralp, İ. and Rhoads, B.L. 2009. Empirical analysis of the platform curvature migration relation of meandering rivers. Water Resources Research, 45(9), pp. 1-15.
29. Güneralp, İ. et al., 2012. Advances and challenges in meandering channels research. Geomorphology, 163-164, pp. 1-9.
30. Gurnell, A.M., et al., 2006. Initial adjustments within a new river channel: Interactions between ﬂuvial processes, colonizing vegetation, and bank proﬁle development. Environmental Management, 38 (4), pp. 580–596.
31. Heo, J., et al., 2009. Characterization and prediction of meandering channel migration in the GIS environment: a case study of the Sabine River in the USA. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 152(1-4): pp.155-165.
32. Hooke, J.M. 2013. River meandering. In: Shroder, J. (Editor in Chief), Wohl, E. (Ed.), Treatise on Geomorphology. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, vol. 9, Fluvial Geomorphology, pp. 260–288.
33. Hooke, J.M., 2004. Cutoffs galore!: occurrence and causes of multiple cutoffs on a meandering river. Geomorphology 61, 225–238.
34. Howard, A.D., 2009. How to make a meandering river. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106 (41),pp. 17245–17246.
35. Hughes, M.L. et al., 2006. Accuracy assessment of georectiﬁed aerial photographs: implications for measuring lateral channel movement in a GIS. Geomorphology, 74: pp. 1–16.
36. Kiss, T. and Blanka, V., 2012. River channel response to climate- and human-induced hydrological changes: Case study on the meandering Hernád River, Hungary. Geomorphology, 175–176, pp. 115–125.
37. Kondolf, G.M. 2006. River restoration and meanders. Ecology and Society 11 (2), pp 42.
38. Kummu, M. et al., 2008. Riverbank changes along the Mekong River: remote sensing detection in the Vientiane–Nong Khai area. Quaternary International, 186, pp.100–112.
39. Lagasse, P.F. et al., 2004. Handbook for Predicting Stream Meander Migration. National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C.
40. Lofthouse, C. and Robert, A. 2008. Riffle–pool sequences and meander morphology. Geomorphology 99(4): pp. 214-223.
41. Muhar, S. et al., 2005. Habersack, H., 2005. Restoring riverine landscapes: successes and deficits in the context of ecological integrity. 6th Intern. Gravel Bed Rivers Workshop, Lienz, Austria, 5-9 September 2005.
42. Nelson N.C, et al., 2013. Spatial and temporal patterns in channel change on the Snake River downstream from Jackson Lake dam, Wyoming. Geomorphology: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2013.03.019.
43. Ollero, A. 2010. Channel changes and ﬂood plain management in the meandering middle Ebro River, Spain. Geomorphology, 117, pp. 247–260.
44. Perucca, E., et al., 2006. Influence of river meandering dynamics on riparian vegetation pattern formation. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences111: pp. 1-10 (G01001).
45. Piégay, H., et al., 2005. A review of techniques available for delimiting the erodible river corridor: a sustainable approach to managing bank erosion. River Research and Applications, 21(7), pp. 773-789.
46. Safaripour, M, et al., 2012. Flood risk assessment using GIS (Case study: Golestan province, Iran). Pol. J. Environ. Stud, 21(6): pp. 1817-1824.
47. Schumm, S.A. 1971. Fluvial geomorphology in river mechanics, Water Resources Publication, Fort Collins, pp. 365-395.
48. Sun, T., et al., 1996. A simulation model for meandering rivers. Water Resources Research 32 (9), pp. 2937–2954.
49. Van De Wiel, M., et al., 2011. Modelling the response of river systems to environmental change: Progress, problems and prospects for palaeo-environmental reconstructions. Earth-Science Reviews, 104, pp. 167-185.
50. Yanan, L., et al., 2011. Dynamic Monitoring and Driving Force Analysis on Rivers and Lakes in Zhuhai City Using Remote Sensing Technologies. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 10, pp.2677 – 2683.