تغییر روش آبیاری کشاورزان در قالب ابزار سیاستی پرداخت بهای خدمات اکوسیستمی (PES) به‏منظور احیای دریاچۀ ارومیه

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه اقتصاد محیط‏ زیست، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 دانش‏ آموختۀ کارشناسی ارشد رشتۀ مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، نور

3 دانشیار گروه علوم و مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، نور

چکیده

از میان تجربیات مدیریتی شناخته‌‏‏شده‏ برای صیانت از منابع زیستی کمیاب، «پرداخت بهای خدمات اکوسیستمی (PES)»، یکی از ابزارهای سیاستی اثربخش در مدیریت چنین منابعی است و استفاده از آن با اقبالی فزاینده در دنیا روبه‌رو شده ‏است. به ‏همین‌دلیل در تحقیق حاضر با تبیین نقش این‌گونه ابزار سیاستی در تشویق کشاورزان به اصلاح سیستم آبیاری به‌منظور کاهش فشار به منابع آبی حوضۀ آبخیز سیمینه‏رود، ارزیابی فنی و اقتصادی اجرای آن انجام شده ‏است. براساس نتایج به‌دست‌آمده طرح تشویق کشاورزان به تغییر روش‏های مرسوم آبیاری در اراضی زراعی تحت تملک خود نخست مقبولیت بسیار زیادی در بین بهره‏برداران حوضه دارد و 45/91 درصد از بهره‏برداران، تمایل خود را به استفاده از روش آبیاری تحت‏فشار ابراز کرده‏اند. دوم اینکه از نظر فنی و اقتصادی، اجرای چنین طرحی نسبت منفعت به هزینه‏ای معادل 98/3 دارد و امکان کاهش تقاضای سالانه‎ای حدود 283 میلیون مترمکعب از منابع آب سیمینه‏رود برای انجام فعالیت‏های کشاورزی در اختیار می‏گذارد. بنابراین، تعمیم برنامۀ تغییر در سیستم آبیاری به تمام زیرحوضه‌های دریاچۀ ارومیه کارایی بسیار زیادی دارد و می‏تواند میزان عرضۀ آب مورد نیاز برای اقدامات احیائی دریاچه را به مقدار شایان توجهی افزایش دهد.
 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Change in irrigation methods under the framework of PES policy tool to restore Lake Urmia

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mostafa Panahi 1
  • Mostafa Panahi 2
  • Mehdi Vafakhah 3
1 Department of Environmental Economics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 MSc. in Watershed Management Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Nour, Iran
3 Department of Watershed Management Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modarres University, Nour, Iran
چکیده [English]

Among well-known managerial practices to protect scarce biological resources, Payment for Ecosystem Services is an efficient and effective policy tool to manage such resources and its application is attracting a growing interest in the world. This is why, in addition to clarifying the role of such a policy tool to encourage farmers to modify their irrigation system to reduce pressures on water resources of Siminehroud Basin, a technical and economic assessment of its feasibility, has been done in this study. According to the results of this study, the idea of “encouraging farmers to change current irrigation practices in their agricultural land” seems to be widely acceptable to them. About 91.45% of land owners have stated their willingness to adopt pressurized irrigation systems. Meanwhile, from technical and economic point of view, realization of such an idea has benefit-cost ratio of 3.98 and it will lead to a decrease in annual demand of 283 MCM water from Siminehroud water resources. Therefore, extension of the plan of change in irrigation practices in all sub-basins of Lake Urmia will be highly efficient and it can considerably increase water supply needed for restoration measures.
 
 
 
 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water management
  • Economic valuation
  • Benefit Transfer
  • Urmia Lake
 
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دوره 3، شماره 2
تیر 1395
صفحه 255-266
  • تاریخ دریافت: 02 اردیبهشت 1395
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 18 مهر 1395
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 21 شهریور 1395
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 21 شهریور 1395