بررسی تغییرات مکانی‌ـ زمانی بارش و دمای ایران تحت شرایط تغییر اقلیم با در‌نظر‌گرفتن عدم قطعیت مدل‏ های AOGCM و سناریوهای انتشار

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

استادیار گروه آب و خاک، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود

چکیده

تأثیرات تغییر اقلیم بر دما و به‌ویژه بارش سراسر جهان به‌دلیل پیچیدگی و تغییرات مکانی آنها به‌خوبی شناخته نشده است. در این مطالعه به‌منظور بررسی تأثیرات تغییر اقلیم بر بارش و دمای ایران، 15 مدل AOGCM استفاده شدند که تحت سناریوهای انتشار گازهای گلخانه‏ای A2، A1B و B1 اجرا می‏شوند. همچنین بارش و دمای ماهانه برای 21 ایستگاه سینوپتیک در دو دورۀ آتی (2016‌ـ 2045 و 2070‌ـ 2099)، تحت هر سه سناریوی انتشار محاسبه شد. نتایج نشان داد در هر دو دورۀ آتی، افزایش دما در ماه‏های تابستان نسبت به ما‏ه‏های زمستان بیشتر است. در دورۀ آتی نخست هر سه سناریوی انتشار افزایش دمای یکسانی (حدود 1تا 5/1 درجه) را پیش‏بینی می‏کنند و تغییرات بارش در این دوره در ایستگاه‏های مختلف چشمگیر نیست؛ اما در دورۀ آتی 2070‌ـ 2099 سناریوی A2 بیشترین افزایش دما و سناریوی B1 کمترین افزایش دما را پیش‏بینی می‏کنند. در این دوره انتظار می‏رود تحت سناریوی بحرانی A2 دمای متوسط سالانۀ کشور در مناطق مرکزی و حاشیۀ دریای خزر حدود 5/3 درجۀ سانتی‌گراد و در دیگر مناطق تا حدود 5/4 درجۀ سانتی‌گراد افزایش یابد. همچنین مشخص شد در دورۀ آتی دوم تحت سناریوی بحرانی A2 فقط در استان گیلان و تا حدودی استان اردبیل افزایش بارش خواهیم داشت و در دیگر مناطق کشور شاهد کاهش بارندگی خواهیم بود. به‌طور کلی، می‏توان نتیجه گرفت که در دورۀ آتی نخست حجم بارش سالانۀ کل کشور حدود 02/1 میلیارد متر‌مکعب (حدود 25/0 درصد) و در دورۀ آتی دوم حدود 52/16 میلیارد متر‌مکعب (حدود 13/4 درصد) کاهش خواهد یافت.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating spatiotemporal variations of precipitation and temperature over Iran under climate change condition considering AOGCM models and emission scenarios uncertainty

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdi Delghandi
  • Roozbeh Moazenzadeh
Soil and Water Department, Agricultural Faculty, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
چکیده [English]

Climate change impacts on precipitation and temperature world-wide are not yet well understood (especially for precipitation), due to their complexity and regional variability. In this study In order to explicit the impact of climate change on Precipitation and temperature in Iran, 15 AOGCM whose greenhouse gases scenarios ran under A2, A1B and B1 were used. Monthly precipitation and temperature data were calculated for 21 synoptic stations for two future periods (2016-2045 and 2070-2099) under all of three scenarios. Result showed that increases in temperature during summer months are higher in comparison with the winter months for both future periods. All three emission scenarios predict same increase in temperature (approximately 1 to 1.5oC) for the first future period while A2 and B1 scenarios predict the highest and lowest increase in temperature over the period of 2070-2099, respectively. It is expected that mean temperature of Iran increases about 3.5oC for the areas close to Caspian Sea and central regions and 4.5oC for other regions under the A2 critical scenario. It is also found that precipitation amounts will be increased in Gilan province and also slightly in Ardabil Province under second future period while the precipitation amounts will be decreased in other regions. Generally, it can be concluded that annual precipitation volume of Iran will be decreased about 1.02 (0.25 percent) and 16.52 billion cubic meter (4.13 percent) for the first and second periods, respectively.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • climate change
  • temperature
  • Precipitation
  • Emission scenarios
 
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