برآورد حقابۀ زیست‌محیطی رودخانۀ قطورچای با استفاده از روش‌های هیدرولوژیکی و اکوهیدرولوژیکی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش ‏آموختۀ کارشناس ارشد سازه‏ های آبی، گروه مهندسی آب دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه

2 استادیار، گروه مهندسی آب دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

تخصیص حقابۀ زیست‏محیطی رودخانه‏ها به‏عنوان حلقۀ مفقوده در مدیریت پایدار منابع آب در ایران، ضرورتی ‏انکارناپذیر برای حفظ اکوسیستم‏های موجود در حوضه‏های آبریز کشور و همچنین جلوگیری از مرگ تالاب‏ها و دریاچه‏های منتهی به رودخانه‏هاست. در این مقاله حقابۀ زیست‏محیطی رودخانۀ قطورچای، که از زیرحوضه‏های مهم حوضۀ آبریز ارس است، با استفاده از چهار روش هیدرولوژیکی شامل تنانت، تسمن، شاخص تداوم جریان، اسمختین و دو روش اکوهیدرولوژیکی شامل تغییر منحنی تداوم جریان و مدل ذخیرۀ رومیزی مطالعه شد. از بین روش‏های یادشده، روش تغییر منحنی تداوم جریان در کلاس اکولوژیکی C عمدتاً به علت سازگاری بیشتر با شرایط هیدرولوژیکی و اکولوژیکی نسبت به سایر روش‏ها و با توجه به درنظرگرفتن محدودیت‏های اکولوژیکی منطقۀ مطالعه‌شده و انعطاف‏پذیری آن در ماه‏های کم‏آبی و پرآبی به‏عنوان روش مناسب انتخاب شد. نتایج نشان داد برای حفظ حیات رودخانۀ قطورچای در کمترین وضعیت اکولوژیکی قابل‏ قبول (کلاس مدیریت زیست‏محیطی C)، باید شدت‏ جریان متوسط سالیانه 94/6 مترمکعب بر ثانیه) معادل با 48 درصد جریان طبیعی رودخانه) در داخل رودخانه جریان داشته باشد. بررسی‏های انجام‌شده نشان داد به‏طور متوسط سالانه 5/6 متر‏مکعب در ثانیه آب از رودخانۀ قطورچای وارد رودخانۀ ارس می‏‌شود که این میزان تقریباً معادل با حقابۀ زیست‏محیطی محاسبه‏شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of Ghoturchay River Environmental Water Right Using Hydrological and Eco-Hydrological Methods

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saeid Habibi Alagoz 1
  • Mohammad Taghi Sattari 2
1 M.Sc of hydraulic structure, Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture Urmia University
2 Department of Water Engineering, Agriculture Faculty, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Allocation of rivers environmental water right as missing link in sustainable water resources management in Iran is undeniable necessity to preserve existing ecosystems in its catchments and preventing the death of wetlands and lakes which have been feeding by the rivers. In this paper environmental Water right for Ghoturchay River, important sub basin watershed of Aras river, have been studied using 4 hydrological Methods (Tennant, Tessman, flow duration indicators, Smakhtin), and 2 eco-hydrological methods (Flow Duration Curve Shifting (FDCs) and Desktop Reserve Model (DRM)). Among these methods, FDCs in ecological class C has been chosen as an appropriate method because it’s had more adaptation to hydrological and ecological conditions of studied region than other methods and considering ecological limitations and its flexibility in wet and dry months. In order to maintain the Ghoturchay River at minimum acceptable environmental status (i.e. Class C of environmental management), average annual flows of 6.94 m3/s (48% natural flow of the River) are to flow in it. This study showed that, average annual flows of 6.5 m3/s arrives at the Aras River, which is approximately equal to the environmental water rights.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Environmental water rights
  • Hydrological Method
  • Eco-hydrological Method
  • Flow Duration Curve Shifting
  • Ghoturchay River
[1]. Tharme RE, Smakhtin VU. Environmental flow assessment in Asia: capitalizing on existing momentum. In: Proceedings of the First Southeast Asia Water Forum, 2nd ed. Thailand, Chiang Mai, 2003.
[2]. Abdi R, Yasi M. Evaluation of environmental flow requirements using eco-hydrologic-hydraulic methods in perennial rivers. International Journal of Water Science and Technology.2015; 72 (3): 354–363 [Persian].
[3]. Smakhtin VU, Anputhas M. An assessment of environmental flow requirements of Indian river basins. IWMI Research Report 107. International water management institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka. 2006: 1–10.
[4]. Korsgaard, L. Environmental Flows in Integrated Water Resources Management: Linking Flows, Services and Values, PhD Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark. 2006. 60pp.
[5]. Mann JL. Instream flow methodologies: An evaluation of the Tennant method for higher gradient streams in the national forest system lands in the western U. S, Master Thesis, Department of Forest, Rangeland and Watershed Stewardship, Colorado State University, Colorado. 2006 143 pp.
[6]. Watt SP. A methodology for environmental protection of Ontario watercourses with respect to the permit to take water program, Master Thesis, Queen’s University, Canada. 2007. 124 pp.
[7]. Sima S. Using of environmental water right in storage exploitation, Master Thesis, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran. 2007 [Persian].
[8]. Taleb Bidokhti N, Banihashem B. environmental water right, 2nd Conference of Environmental Engineering, environmental faculty, University of Tehran. May 2008 [Persian].
 
[9]. Karimi S. Evaluation of river environmental flow using hydrological methods Tennant, Tessman, FDC Shifting and RVA methods. Journal of Eco-hydrologic. 2010; 4 (1): 177-189 [Persian].
[10].            Ahmadpour Z, Yasi M. Evaluation of eco-hydrology-hydraulics methods for environmental flows rivers (case study: Nazloo River, Urmia Lake Basin). Journal of Hydraulics. 2014; 9 (2): 69-82 [Persian].
[11].            Gholamzadeh F, Yasi M. Evaluation of environmental flow requirements using eco-hydrologic-hydraulic methods (case study: Rozehchay River, Urmia Lake Basin), Master Thesis, Urmia University. 2015 [Persian].
[12].            Mostafavi S, Yasi M. Evaluation of environmental flow requirements using eco-hydrologic-hydraulic methods in Baranduzchay River, Urmia Lake Basin, Journal of water and soil investigates. 2015; 29 (5): 1219-1231[Persian].
[13].            Rezayi N, Yasi M. Evaluation of environmental flow requirements using eco-hydrologic methods on Simineh River, Urmia Lake Basin, Master Thesis, Urmia University. 2015 [Persian].
[14].            Ajh S, Yasi M. Assessment of environmental flow requirements using eco-hydrologic methods on Zolachay River, Urmia Lake Basin, Master Thesis, Urmia University. 2015 [Persian].
[15].            Habibi S, Yasi M. Evaluation of environmental flow requirements using hydrological and eco-hydrological methods on Gadarchay River, Urmia Lake Basin, Master Thesis, Urmia University. 2015 [Persian].
[16].            Ashuri M, Yasi M. Assessment of environmental flow requirements using eco-hydrologic methods on Zarrineh River, Urmia Lake Basin, Master Thesis, Urmia University. 2015 [Persian].
 
[17].            Karimi S, Salari M, Gorbani Kh. Evaluation of river environmental flow using hydrological methods Tennant, Tessman, FDC Shifting and RVA methods. Journal of Ec-ohydrologic. 2017; 4 (1): 177-189[Persian].
[18].            Tennant DL. Instream flow regimens for fish, wildlife, recreation and related environmental resources. Fisheries. 1976 Jul 1:1(4):6-10.
[19].            Tessmann S. Environmental Assessment, Technical Appendix E in Environmental Use Sector Reconnaissance Elements of the western Dakotas Region of South Dakota study. Water Resources Research Institute, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD. 1980.
[20].            Hughes DA, Smakhtin VU. Daily flow time series patching or extension: a spatial interpolation approach based on flow duration curves. Journal of Hydrological Sciences. 1996; 41(6): 851–871.
[21].            Smakhtin VU, Revenga C, Doll P. A pilot global assessment of environmental water requirements and scarcity. Water International. 2004; 29: 307–317.
[22].            Smakhtin VY, Anputhas M. An assessment of environmental flow requirements of Indian River basins. IWMI Research Report 107. International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2006, 36pp.
[23].            Smakhtin VU, Eriyagama N. Developing a software package for global desktop assessment of environmental flows. Environmental Modelling & Software. 2008 Dec 31:23(12):1396-406.
[24].            Hughes DA, Hannart P. A desktop model used to provide an initial estimate of the ecological instream flow requirements of rivers in South Africa. Journal of Hydrology. 2003 Jan 31:270(3):167-81.