برآورد مکانی فرسایش خاک کشور ایران با استفاده از مدل RUSLE

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه سنجش از دور و سامانۀ اطلاعات مکانی، دانشکدۀ علوم، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

2 استادیار گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

3 دانش ‏آموختۀ کارشناسی ارشد گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

چکیده

فرسایش خاک از مهم‏ترین مسائل و مشکلاتی است که امروزه بشر با آن مواجـه است. ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮاﯾﻦ، ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ خاک ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮر بهره‏برداری ﻣﻄﻠﻮب و ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﺗﺨﺮﯾﺐ آن ﺿﺮوری است. هدف از این تحقیق، برآورد فرسایش خاک کشور ایران به‏وسیلۀ مدل RUSLE با استفاده از داده‏های سیستم اطلاعات مکانی (GIS) و سنجش از دور (RS) است. در مطالعۀ حاضر، با جمع‏آوری داده‏ها و اطلاعات مختلف شامل لایه‏های مدل رقومی ارتفاعی (DEM)، آمار بارندگی مربوط به ایستگاه‏های باران‏نگار، تصاویر ماهواره‏ای و خصوصیات خاک به‏عنوان ابزار تحقیق استفاده شده و میزان فرسایش خاک با استفاده از مدل RUSLE برآورد شد. مقادیر متوسط سالانۀ عامل‏های P، K، C، LS و R به‌ترتیب برابر با 65/0، 04/0 (t h MJ-1 mm-1)، 46/0، 3/6 و 195 (MJ mm ha-1 y-1h-1) هستند. نتایج پژوهش حاضر نشان داد متوسط فرسایش سالانۀ خاک در کشور ایران حدود 24 تن بر هکتار بر سال است و عامل LS با ضریب همبستگی 66/0 بیشترین تأثیر را در برآورد فرسایش سالانۀ خاک توسط مدل RUSLE داشته است. همچنین، نتایج پژوهش نشان داد سالانه حدود چهار میلیارد تن خاک از اراضی کشور فرسایش یافته و قسمتی از آن وارد سامانۀ‏ آب‏های جاری و دریا می‏شود که سبب کاهش کیفیت، آلودگی آب، کاهش حاصلخیزی خاک و کاهش سطح اراضی قابل‏کشت و در نهایت تخریب خاک می‏شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Spatial estimation of soil erosion in Iran using RUSLE model

نویسندگان [English]

  • shahin mohammadi 1
  • Hamidreza Karimzadeh 2
  • Meyasm Alizadeh 3
1 PhD student Department of Remote Sensing, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
2 Range and watershed management, natural resources, Isfahan university Technology,Isfahan, Iran
3 Rangeland and Watershed Group, college natural resources ,Isfahan university technology.Iran
چکیده [English]

Soil erosion is one of the most important issues that human is facing now. The purpose of this research is to estimate the soil erosion in Iran using the RUSLE model and use of geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing data (RS). In the present study, after collecting and gathering various information including the digital elevation model (DEM) layers, Statistics on weather stations and rain gauges, satellite images and soil characteristics were used as research tools and Soil erosion was estimated using the RUSLE model. The average annual values of P, K, C, LS and R factors are 0.65, 0.04 (t h MJ-1 mm-1), 0.46, 3.6 and 195 (MJ mm ha-1 y-1 h- 1), respectively. The results of this study showed that the average annual soil erosion in Iran is about 24 tons per hectare per year. Also, the results of the study showed that about 4 billion tons from soil the country eroded and partial entered the system of water in the stream and the sea which reduces the quality, water pollution, reduces of soil fertility and reduces the amount of cultivated land and ultimately leads to soil degradation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soil erosion mapping
  • Erosion Modeling
  • GIS
  • soil conservation
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