ارزیابی کارایی مالچ‌پاشی در افزایش میزان نفوذ عمقی آب باران به داخل خاک

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی آبیاری و زهکشی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشجوی دکتری منابع آب، گروه مهندسی آبیاری و زهکشی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

یکی از روش‏هایی که تا کنون برای کاهش میزان تبخیر به کار گرفته شده، استفاده از مالچ است. بر همین اساس، در ‌تحقیق حاضر سعی شد تا کارایی مالچ‏ها در افزایش میزان تغذیۀ مستقیم آب‏های زیرزمینی ناشی از افزایش میزان نفوذ آب باران بررسی شود. به این منظور، تعداد هشت بارش با مدت زمان‏ و عمق‏های مختلف آزمایش شده و میزان نفوذ عمقی این بارش‏ها در خاک، در چهار لایسیمتر با شرایط یکسان و مالچ‏های متفاوت شامل مالچ شن، مالچ ماسه، مالچ مخلوط شن و ماسه با نسبت یکسان و همچنین خاک بدون مالچ آزمایش شد. طی دو ماه آزمایش، تعداد 192 داده برای هریک از پارامترهای رطوبت خاک و میزان نفوذ عمقی آب باران برداشت شد. این نتایج نشان داد میانگین میزان نفوذ عمقی آب باران با استفاده از مالچ شن، ماسه و مخلوط شن و ماسه به‌ترتیب مقدار 52/19، 45/2 و 60/16 درصد نسبت به خاک بدون مالچ افزایش یافته است. به این‌ترتیب، مشخص شد استفاده از مالچ‏پاشی می‏تواند با کاهش میزان تلفات تبخیر آب باران موجب افزایش میزان نفوذ عمقی شود و تغذیۀ آب‏های زیرزمینی را بهبود دهد. بنابراین، نتایج تحقیق حاضر برای احیای آبخوان‏ها می‏تواند استفاده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Mulching Performance in Increasing the Deep Percolation of Rainwater into the Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Ebrahim Banihabib 1
  • Bahman Vaziri 2
2 PhD student of University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Using mulch is one of the ways which has been used so far to reduce the amount of evaporation. Accordingly, in this research, mulch effectiveness has been investigated in increasing the direct recharge of groundwater due to increased rainwater percolation. For this purpose, eight rainstorms with different durations and depths were tested. The depth of percolation of these rainfalls in the soil of 4 lysimeters with similar condition and different mulches, including gravel mulch, sand mulch, mixed 50% sand and 50% gravel mulch were tested as well as in non-covered soils. During the two months of the experiment, 192 data were collected for each soil moisture and rainfall percolation depth. The results showed that the mean rainwater percolation depth by gravel mulch, sand mulch and mixed sand and gravel mulch was respectively 19.52, 2.45 and 16.60 percent increased comparing to the soil without mulch. It was found that mulching can increases rainwater penetration as one of the main sources of groundwater recharge, by reducing the amount of rain water evaporation and therefore the results of this research can be used to aquifer restoration.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mulch
  • rainwater deep percolation
  • Groundwater
  • Evaporation
  • aquifer restoration
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