شبیه‏سازی فرایندهای هیدرولوژیکی در مناطق خشک مطالعۀ موردی: حوضۀ آبخیز کارده در استان خراسان رضوی

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

استادیار، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان تهران

چکیده

تقاضای آب از مؤلفه‏‏های اصلی تصمیم‏‏گیری برای مدیریت منابع، آبخیزها و پدیده‏‏هایی نظیر خشکسالی به شمار می‏‏رود. بنابراین، شناخت ظرفیت‏های آبی برای مدیریت بهینۀ منابع، آبخیزها و پدیده‌هایی نظیر خشکسالی لازم است. مدیریت منابع آب‏های سطحی و ریسک خشکسالی کشور، همچنان با نبود سامانه‌ای مواجه است که تصمیم‌گیران را در به‌کارگیری تصمیم‌های درست و به‌موقع پشتیبانی کند. برای ایجاد چنین سامانه‌ای، لازم است اقدامات اساسی در خصوص شناخت موضوع و ظرفیت‏‏های داده‏‏های کشور بررسی و ارزیابی شود. با توجه به اینکه شبیه‏سازی بارش- رواناب یکی از تحقیقات مهم هیدرولوژیکی در علوم مهندسی آب محسوب می‏شود، در پژوهش حاضر شبیه‌سازی فرایندهای هیدرولوژیکی حوضۀ کارده با استفاده از شاخص بارش پیشین(API)  بررسی شد که به تخمین آستانۀ شروع رواناب با بهره‌گیری از شبیه‌ساز بارش و رواناب می‏پردازد. سپس، شاخص بارش پیشین به دست آمد و بین هر دو شاخص با روزهای پیشین 1، 2، 3، 4، 5، 6، 7، 10، 15، 20، 25 و 30 روزه با رواناب حوضه همبستگی برقرار شده و نتایج مقایسه شد. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد بیشترین تفاوت‏ها در شاخص بارش پیشین با رواناب در حوضۀ کارده مربوط به روزهای 20 و 30 با تفاوت مقدار ضریب تبیین 4 درصد است. درنهایت، بیشترین همبستگی شاخص بارش پیشین با رواناب در روز یکم بوده که مقدار ضریب تبیین برابر 56 درصد است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Simulation of Hydrological Processes in Dry Areas Case study; Kardeh watershed in Razavi Khorasan Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • habibollah mahdavivafa
  • Rahman Sharifi
tehran
چکیده [English]

Water demand is one of the main components of decision making to manage resources, watersheds and phenomena such as droughts. Therefore, recognizing water capacities and demand for water are the main components of decision making for management of water resources and phenomena such as drought. The management of surface water resources and dangers in the country continues to face a lack of a system that supports decision-makers in making timely and correct decisions. In order to establish such a system, it is necessary to consider and evaluate the basic steps in identifying the subject and the country's data capacities. Considering that runoff simulation is one of the most important hydrological researches in water engineering sciences. Therefore, in this study, the simulation of the hydrologic processes of the basin, located in the dry area of Khorasan Razavi province, has been studied using the "Precipitation Index" (API), which estimates the threshold of runoff using the rainfall and trap simulator. The previous rainfall index was calculated and then the results were compared between the two indexes with the previous days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days with the flood waters of the basin. The results of this study showed that the pre-rainfall index with runoff in the catchment area had the most differences between days 20 and 30 with a difference of 4% explanation coefficient. Finally, the highest correlation between the previous rainfall index and runoff is on day one,with an explanatory factor of 56%.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cartilage Basin
  • Rainfall
  • Runoff
  • simulation
  • Razavi Khorasan
Karamoz M., Ahmadi A. and Nazif S. , Review the Challenges and Opportunities for Optimizing Water Resources Systems. First Water Resources Optimization Conference، City of Shahr e Kord , 2006. (in Persian).
Kazemikia S. and Habibnezhad M. , Predicting flow of the Barandoz River Basin. Quarterly Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources، 2006.Volume 15، pp. 94-79. (in Persian).
Lang، J.A.، P. Schick and C. Leibundgut. A Noncalibrated rainfall-runoff model for large، arid catchments. Water Resource Research،. 1999. 35(7):2126-2177.
Sharifi، F. and Boyd M., Evaluation of three continuous rainfall-runoff models، a new approach. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Rainwater Catchments Systems،1997. 416-432.
Afshar M. , Engineering Hydrology، University Press Publishing Center..1985.(in Persian).
Telvari R.,Hydrological models in plain language، published by Forest Research Institute and Rangeland. 1996. (in Persian).
Hartman. H..، Bales R. and S. Sorooshian. Weather، climate and hydrologic forecasting for the southwest U. S.، The Climate Assessment Project for the Southwest (CLIMAS)، Working Paper Series: WP2-99، Tucson، Arizona، USA،. 1999. 172pp.
Fedora، M.A. and R.L. Beschta. R.L. , Runoff Simulation Using an Antecedent Precipitation Index (API) Model، Journal of Hydrology،1989. 112:121-133
Linsley، Jr, Kohler M. A. and. Paulhus J.L. , Hydrology for engineers، McGraw-Hill Book Company، London،1988. 492pp.
Ziemer، R.R. and Rice. R.M. Tracking rainfaij impulses through progressively larger drainage basins in steep forested terrain، In: Proceedings of Two Lausanne Symposia، August 1990، Hydrology in Montainous Regions، 1Hydrological Meas8rments; The Water Cycle، IAHS Publication، 1990.193:413-420.
Karnieli، A. and Ben-Asher. J. , A Daily Runoff Simulation in Semi-Arid Watersheds Base d on Deficit Calculations. J. Hydrology، 1993.149: 9-25.
Harden، D.R. , A comparison of flood-oroducing storms and their impacts in northwestern California، In: Nolan، K. M.، H. M. Kelsey and D. C. Marron (B d.)، Geomorphic Processes and Aquatic Habitat in the Redwood Creed Basin، Northwestern California، U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper. 1995. 1454، pp. DI-D9.
Caporali، E.، Entekhabi D. and Castelli F.، Rainstorm statistics conditional on soil moisture index: temporal and spatial characteristics. Journal of Meccanica.1996، 31:103-116.
Xia، J.، O'Connor، K.M. Kachroo R.K. and G.C. Liang , A non-linear perturbation model considering catchment wetness and its application in river flow forecasting. Journal of Hydrology،1997. 200:164-178.
Sullivan، A.، J.L. Ternan and WilIiams A.G., Land use change and hydrological response in the camel catchment، CornwaIJ. Journal of Applied Geography،2004. 24:119-137.
Anctil، F.، C. Michel C. , Perrin C. and Andreassian V. , A soil moisture index as an auxiliary ANN input for stream flow forecasting. Journal of Hydrology،2004. 286(1):155-167
Yixing Yin. , Impacts of land use change scenarios on storm-runoff generation in Xitiaoxi basin, China. Quaternary International. (2009). 208. 121-128.
Steele-Dunni ,S. Lynch ,Mcgrath , Semmler T. , The Impact of Climate Change on Hydrology in Ireland Journal of Hydrology, 2008.365:28-45.
Chen, Ying. Youpeng Xu., Yixing Yin. , Impacts of land use change scenarios on storm runoff generation in Xitiaoxi basin, China. Quaternary International. 2009.208. 121-128.
Shimelis, G., Setegn, R., Srinivasan, A., Melesse, M., Bijan, D. , SWAT model application and prediction uncertainty analysis in the Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia, Hydrol. Process..2010. 24, 357–367.
Visekarami A., Investigating the relationship between hydrological reductions for determining the hydrograph of the flood in the Kashkan Basin (Lorestan)، Master's thesis، Watershed Management، Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources.1999. (in Persian).
Sharfi F. , Namdorost J. and Zaren H. , Evaluation of AWBM Model in Several Sub-basins، Karoon Springs، First Regional Conference on Water Resources Utilization in Karoon and Zayandeh Rood Basins (Opportunities and Challenges). 2006. (in Persian).
Fazleavail.R. , Rainfall-runoff simulation model using previous rainfall index، Case study: Amameh and Kasilian watersheds. Phd dissertation on hydrology. Chamran of Ahwaz University..2006. (in Persian).
Ahmadienezhad. A ,Golmae S. and Ahamadi M. , Simulation of Rainfall Processes - Runoff and Water Discharges in Rivers Basin (Case Study, kor korsar Basin), Journal of Watershed Management, First Year, No 1, Spring and Summer.2010. (in Persian).0
 Khierfam, H. ,Asadi O. and Rohani H. ,Rainfall-run Simulation using the IHACRESS model, 7th National Conference on Watershed Management, Iran. 2011. (in Persian(.
Ghafari G. and Vafakhah M. , Simulation of Rainfall-Runoff Processes Using Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy-Neural System, Comparative (A Case Study of Haji Ghoshan Basin, Journal of Watershed Management, 2013.Vol.4, No. 8, Autumn and Winter, pp. 86-74. (in Persian).
Nadersefat، M. and Saidian، F. , Investigating the flooding trend in watersheds by investigating the permeability and potential for the formation of rowan in the geological formations of the lagoon. Geography Quarterly Journal. 2010. pp.163-199. (in Persian).