توزیع زمانی و مکانی اجزای ردپای آب و تجارت آب مجازی محصول گردو در ایران

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم مهندسی آب، دانشگاه بین‌المللی امام خمینی(ره)، قزوین

2 دانشیار گروه علوم مهندسی آب، دانشگاه بین‌المللی امام خمینی(ره)، قزوین

3 دانشیار گروه مهندسی منابع طبیعی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه هرمزگان، بندرعباس

چکیده

بخش‏های زیادی از ایران با بحران آب مواجه شده‏اند. با توجه به اینکه حدود 85 درصد از منابع آب سطحی و زیرزمینی کشور در بخش کشاورزی مصرف می‌شود، مدیریت آب در این بخش برای کاهش مصرف آب ضروری است. حفظ محیط زیست، منابع آب و تولیدات کشاورزی از مهم‌ترین اهداف اکوهیدرولوژی است. ردپای آب و تجارت آب مجازی مفاهیمی هستند که اخیراً برای مدیریت منابع آب و در اکوهیدرولوژی استفاده می‌شوند. بیشتر مطالعات صورت‌گرفته از این مفاهیم دربارۀ محصولات زراعی است و در مورد محصولات باغی مطالعات اندکی وجود دارد. مطالعۀ حاضر، به برآورد اجزای ردپای آب در گردوی فاریاب با کمک شاخص ردپای آب برای دورۀ آماری 1387 تا 1396 در 27 استان در سطح ایران پرداخته است. نتایج نشان داد به طور متوسط ردپای آب در محصول گردو 42/6 مترمکعب بر کیلوگرم است که سهم آب آبی، سبز و خاکستری به‌ترتیب 90، 3 و 7 درصد است. بیشترین و کمترین ردپای آب مربوط به استان‏های یزد و مازندران با مقدار 11/14 و 94/1 مترمکعب بر کیلوگرم است. همچنین، متوسط حجم کل ردپای آب در محصول گردوی فاریاب 1493 میلیون مترمکعب در سال است، که حدود 94 درصد از کل حجم ردپای آب در تولید گردوی کشور یعنی معادل 1403 میلیون مترمکعب در سال به صورت تجارت آب مجازی از کشور صادر می‏شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Spatio-temporal of Walnut Water Footprint Components and Virtual Water Trading in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Bazrafshan 1
  • Hadi Ramezani Etedali 2
  • Omolbanin Bazrafahan 3
1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Water Sciences and Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Water Sciences and Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Natural Resources Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran
چکیده [English]

Many regions of Iran are increasingly faced with water crisis. Since agriculture is the main sector of water resources consumption with 85% of global surface and groundwater, it is necessary to reduce water consumption in this sector. Environmental protection, water resources and agricultural production are the main important goals of echo hydrology. Water footprint (WF) and virtual water trading (VW) concepts are recently used for fresh water resources management and echo hydrology engineering. WF and VW are used for sustainable management of water resources, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. These concepts have been used more in crop productions and less in fruit crops. The purpose of this study was to investigate the water footprint and water footprint in walnut production for duration of 2006-2016 in provincial and national scale of Iran. This study calculates water footprint components in walnut production for duration of 2006-2016 in provincial and nation scale of Iran. Result showed the average of water footprint is 6.42 m3/kg which the share of blue, green and grey water footprint are 90%, 3% and 7%, respectively. The highest and the lowest water footprint are in Yazd (14.11 m3/kg) and Mazandaran (1.94 m3/kg) provinces. Also, the total volume of water footprint is 1493 MCM per year that exported about 94% (1403 MMC per year) in the form of virtual water trade.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • water footprint
  • Walnut
  • Provincial scale
  • national scale
  • Virtual water trade
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