تبیین کارکرد رویکرد همبست در هیدروپلیتیک آب‌های فرامرزی

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه مهندسی و مدیریت منابع آب، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران‌

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی منابع آب، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران‌

3 استادیار گروه مهندسی و مدیریت منابع آب، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران‌

چکیده

سیستم‌های آبی، سیستم جفت‏شدۀ‏ طبیعی- انسانی است که تعاملاتِ غیرقابل پیش‏بینی، پویا و بازخوردهای متعدد با بخش‏های مختلف از جمله غذا، انرژی و اقلیم دارد. شناخت تعاملاتِ بین بخش‏های مختلف با منابع آب و همچنین، درک فرابخشی بودن حکمرانی آن، نیازمند اتخاذ رویکردی کل‏گرایانه است. رویکرد «همبست»، رویکردی نوین و کل‏گرایانه برای مواجهه با درهم‏تنیدگی‏های آب-غذا-انرژی است. این رویکرد در مناسبات و تعاملات هیدروپلیتیکی آب‏های فرامرزی کارکرد بسیاری دارد، زیرا منابع مشترک مورد مناقشه را از کانون توجهات خارج می‏کند و می‏تواند دامنۀ وسیع‏تری برای همکاری به وجود آورد. همبست، نوعی رویکرد مناسب برای مواجهه با رقابت‏ها و مناقشات آب‏های فرامرزی است، زیرا اتخاذ رویکرد همبست به منافع‏سازی بین کشورهای ساحلی می‏انجامد و به‌کارگیری آن فرصتی‏ برای تولید کالا یا خدمات تخصصی در هر کشور و چانه‏زنی بیشتر خواهد بود. از این‌رو، تبیین کارکرد رویکرد همبست در حکمرانی و مناسبات آب‏های فرامرزی و سیاست‌گذاری‏های مرتبط با حوزۀ نوین دیپلماسی آب ضروری است. بر این اساس، مقالۀ حاضر با ماهیت بنیادی- نظری و روش توصیفی-تحلیلی می‌کوشد ‌کارکرد رویکرد همبست را در حکمرانی سیستم‏های آبی به طور عام و حکمرانی مناسبات آب‏های فرامرزی به طور خاص بررسی کند. همچنین، تفاوت‏های کلیدی این رویکرد با رویکرد مدیریت یکپارچۀ منابع آب، با هدف برجسته‏سازی کاربرد متفاوت آن دو با یکدیگر مقایسه و ارائه می‏شوند. برای تبیین بهتر کارایی این رویکرد، کارکرد آن در دو حوضۀ‏ آبریز براهماپوترا در جنوب آسیا و دریاچۀ آرال در آسیای مرکزی تحلیل می‏شود. در نهایت، نشان داده خواهد شد که چگونه استفاده از رویکرد همبست «آب-انرژی-محیط ‏زیست» تعاملات پایداری برای دو کشور هند و بوتان در حوضۀ آبریز براهماپوترا ایجاد کرده است و چگونه عدم تبعیت از رویکرد همبست «آب-غذا-انرژی» برای کشورهای حوضۀ دریاچۀ آرال هزینه‏های اقتصادی و آسیب‏های زیست‏محیطی در پی داشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Application of Nexus Approach in Hydropolitics of Transboundary Rivers

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamidreza Barjeste 1
  • Seyedeh Zahra Ghoreishi 2
  • Hojjat Mianabadi 3
1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Water Engineering and Management, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 M.Sc. Student, Department of Irrigation & Reclamation Engineering, University of Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Water Engineering and Management, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Most of the water problems are complex, with unpredictable and dynamic interactions as well as multiple feedbacks with different sectors, like energy, food, and climate. A holistic approach is required for recognizing the interactions among different parts of water resources with other sources. "Nexus" as a novel and holistic approach can be applied to deal with the complexities of water-food-energy interactions. This approach is also so fruitful in transboundary water relations among riparian countries. Considering the interactions among water, food, energy sectors, and the direct effect of the allocation of water resources across borders can be a great potential for dealing with transboundary basin conflicts. It is necessary to apply nexus approach as an appropriate and comprehensive approach for the right policy-making and good governance in transboundary river basins. This paper, with its fundamental-theoretical and descriptive and analytical method, tries to examine the function of the WFE nexus approach in water governance in general and governance of transboundary water relations in particular. As case studies approach, the Brahmaputra and Aral basins are analyzed. Finally, it will be shown how the use of water, energy and the environment nexus approach has created sustainable interactions between India and Bhutan in the Brahmaputra basin and how non-compliance with the WFE nexus approach for Central Asian countries in the Aral basin has created economic costs and environmental damage.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water-Food-Energy Nexus
  • Transboundary Water
  • integrated water resources management
  • Hydropolitics
  • Water Diplomacy
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