بررسی وضعیت سیاست‌های ایران در حوزۀ محیط زیست دریایی مبنی بر سه معیار کارآمدی، انسجام و جامعیت

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای حقوق کیفری و جرم‌شناسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد قم

2 دانشیار، گروه حقوق جزا و جرم‌شناسی، دانشگاه قم

3 دانشیار دانشکدۀ حقوق پردیس فارابی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

دیر زمانی است که انسان برای تداوم یا بهینه‌سازی زندگانی خویش، به بهره‏گیری از دریاها روی آورده و از روزگاران کهن تا کنون از مواهب دریاها برخوردار شده است. محیط زیست دریایی به دلیل کارکرد اکوهیدرولوژیکی و همچنین، از نظر تأمین بخش فراوانی از غذای جمعیت جهان و نیز تسهیل و تعمیق روابط بازرگانی جایگاه منحصربه‌فردی دارد. در تحقیق حاضر، معیارهای سنجش سیاست جنایی بررسی شده‏اند. این معیارها عبارت‏اند از: کارآمدی، انسجام و جامعیت. نتایج بررسی معیارها نشان می‏دهد به دلیل پراکندگی قوانین و یکپارچه نبودن قانون خاص لازم‌الاجرا‌، برای برخورد با جرایم در این حوزه، سیاست کیفری ایران به‌رغم صرف هزینه و به‌کارگیری نیروی انسانی فراوان در مسیر مقابله با جرایم علیه محیط زیست دریایی، کارآمدی مورد انتظار را نداشته باشد. سیاست جنایی ایران در ابعاد تقنینی، قضایی، اجرایی و مشارکتی نیز انسجام و هم‌راستایی لازم را ندارد. سیاست جنایی ایران در خصوص جرم‌انگاری، وضعیت تقریباً مطلوبی دارد، اما در حوزۀ پاسخ‌دهی، قابل دفاع عمل نمی‏کند. تقریباً از ابتدا تا انتهای قوانین در انحصار مجازات‏های سنتی و به طور مشخص، حبس و جزای نقدی است. سیاست جنایی در ایستگاه پاسخ‌های کیفری سنتی متوقف شده است و طرحی نو برای به‌کارگیری سایر پاسخ‌های کیفری یا حقوقی غیرکیفری یا غیرحقوقی در حیطۀ اکولوژی و هیدرولوژی مصوب نکرده است، در نتیجه سیاست جنایی ایران در این خصوص جامعیت ندارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing the Status of Iran's Policies in the Field of Marine Environment Based on Three Criteria of Efficiency, Coherence and Comprehensiveness

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farshid Akbarzadeh 1
  • Mohamad Ali Hajidehabadi 2
  • Mohammad Ebrahim Shams Nateri 3
  • Seyed Mahmood Mirkhlili 3
1 PhD Student in Criminal Law and Criminology, Qom Islamic Azad University, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Criminal Law and Criminology, Faculty of Law, University of Qom, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Faculty of law, University of Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

From long time ago, human beings have used the seas to continue or optimize their lives and have benefited from the gifts of the seas. The marine environment has a unique position due to its eco-hydrological function, providing a large portion of the world's population food and facilitating trade relations. In this research, 3 criteria are investigated for measuring criminal policy. These criteria include efficiency, coherence and comprehensiveness. The results of the criteria show that, due to the dispersion of laws and lack of integrity of the law, despite the use of human resources and spending money against marine environment crimes, there is no expected efficiency. Iran's criminal policy does not have the necessary coherence and alignment in legislative, judicial, executive and participatory dimensions. Iran's criminal policy on crime detection is relatively good, but it does not work well in terms of accountability. Almost from the beginning to the end of the laws, traditional punishments are monopolized, specifically imprisonment and fines. Criminal policy has stopped in traditional criminal responses and has not approved a new plan to use other criminal, non-criminal and legal responses in the field of ecology and hydrology, so Iran's criminal policy in this regard is lacking in comprehensiveness.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • environmental law
  • Marine Environment
  • cohesion
  • Efficiency
  • comprehensiveness
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