نقش خدمت اکوسیستمی تولید آب در تأمین منابع آب حسابداری WA+ (مطالعۀ موردی: حوضۀ آبخیز دریاچۀ ارومیه)

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری تخصصی آمایش محیط ‏زیست، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج‌

2 دانشیار گروه محیط زیست، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج‌

3 دانش‌آموختۀ دکتری مهندسی آب، مؤسسۀ پژوهشی‌ـ مهندسی راهبرد دانش پویا، تهران‌

چکیده

یکی از خدمات مهم اکوسیستم‏ها، خدمت تولید آب است. خدمت تولید آب به طور مستقیم بر توسعۀ پایدار سیستم‏های اقتصادی-اجتماعی تأثیر می‏گذارد. هدف از انجام مطالعۀ حاضر، بررسی نقش خدمت اکوسیستمی تولید آب در حوضۀ دریاچۀ ارومیه در برآورد چارچوب حسابداری آب پلاس (WA+) است. در گام نخست، کاربرگ منابع آب از چارچوب WA+ برای منطقۀ مطالعاتی با استفاده از داده‏های هیدرولوژی و تصاویر ماهواره‏ای در سال 2015 محاسبه شد. در گام بعدی، به منظور کمی‏سازی خدمت تولید آب در همان سال از مدل Water Yield در نرم‏افزار InVEST استفاده شد. داده‏های ورودی این مدل شامل کاربری/پوشش سرزمین، بارش، تبخیر و تعرق، عمق محدودکنندۀ خاک برای ریشۀ گیاه، میزان آب در دسترس گیاه، لایۀ زیرحوضه‏ها و جدول اطلاعات بیوفیزیکی می‏شود. سپس، اجرای مدل در نرم‏افزار InVEST نسخۀ 3.5.0 میزان تولید آب در سطح حوضه و زیرحوضه به دست آمد. نتایج WA+ و InVEST نشان دادند میزان کل ورودی آب در حوضۀ دریاچۀ ارومیه در حسابداری WA+ در سال 2015 برابر با 4/16 میلیارد متر مکعب است که از این میزان 7 میلیارد متر مکعب آن سهم خدمت اکوسیستمی تولید آب در این حوضه بوده است. بنابراین، اکوسیستم با تولید بیش از 40 درصد از حجم ورودی‏های آب در حوضه کارکرد زیادی در تأمین منابع آب آن دارد. از این‌رو، دانستن کمی سهم اکوسیستم‏ها در یک حوضه می‏تواند به برنامه‏ریزی بهتر در زمینۀ مدیریت منابع آبی و نیز حفظ ارزش‏های اکوسیستم بینجامد. از نتایج مدل Water Yield و کاربرگ منابع آب WA+ می‏توان در مدیریت جامع منابع آبی و برنامه‏ریزی برای تخصیص عادلانۀ آب بهره برد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Role of Water Yield Ecosystem Service in WA + Resource Base Sheet (Case of Urmia Lake Basin)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Nikooy 1
  • sharareh Pourebrahim 2
  • Bahman Jabbarian 2
  • Davood reza Arab 3
1 Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran
2 Department of Environmental studies, Faculty of Natural resources, University of Tehran
3 Rahbord Danesh Puya institute
چکیده [English]

Water yield is one of the most important hydrological ecosystem services. This study aims to quantify the ecosystem water yield and compare it with the water resource base sheet in water accounting Plus (WA +) in the Lake Urmia basin. First, the resources base sheet from WA + framework was estimated using hydrological data and remote sensing data in 2015. In the next step, in order to quantify the water yield in the same year, the water yield model was used in InVest software. Water yield input data include land use/cover, precipitation, Average annual reference evapotranspiration, root restricting layer depth, plant available water content, sub-basin and basin layers and biophysical data. The amount of water yield (m3) in the basin and sub-basin was obtained through running the Water yield model in InVest 3.5.0. The results showed that the amount of water inflows in the Urmia Lake basin in WA + in 2015 is equal to 16 Km3, of which 7 Km3 was the share of ecosystem service of water yield in this basin. Therefore, the land use/cover plays an important role in supplying water resources by producing more than 43% of the volume of water inflows in the basin. In conclusion, quantifying the ecosystems water yield can lead to better planning in water resources management as well as preserving ecosystem values. The results of the water yield model and the WA + resources base sheet can be used in integrated water resources management and planning for equitable water allocation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water Yield
  • InVEST
  • WA+
  • Watershed Services
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